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  1. Chaetognatha are a phylum of marine carnivorous animals which includes more than 130 extant species. The internal systematics of this group have been intensively debated since it was discovered in the 18th centur...

    Authors: Samah Gasmi, Gabriel Nve, Nicolas Pech, Sada Tekaya, Andr Gilles and Yvan Perez

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:84

    Content type: Research

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  2. Deep-sea alvinellid worm species endemic to hydrothermal vents, such as Alvinella and Paralvinella, are considered to be among the most thermotolerant animals known with their adaptability to toxic heavy metals, ...

    Authors: Shuichi Shigeno, Atsushi Ogura, Tsukasa Mori, Haruhiko Toyohara, Takao Yoshida, Shinji Tsuchida and Katsunori Fujikura

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:82

    Content type: Research

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  3. Urbanization can considerably impact animal ecology, evolution, and behavior. Among the new conditions that animals experience in cities is anthropogenic noise, which can limit the sound space available for an...

    Authors: Mathieu Giraudeau, Paul M Nolan, Caitlin E Black, Stevan R Earl, Masaru Hasegawa and Kevin J McGraw

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:83

    Content type: Research

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  4. Food availability is an important environmental cue for animals for deciding how much to invest in reproduction, and it ultimately affects population size. The importance of food limitation has been extensivel...

    Authors: Lise Ruffino, Pälvi Salo, Elina Koivisto, Peter B Banks and Erkki Korpimäki

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:80

    Content type: Research

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  5. Umami and sweet tastes are two important basic taste perceptions that allow animals to recognize diets with nutritious carbohydrates and proteins, respectively. Until recently, analyses of umami and sweet tast...

    Authors: Guangjian Liu, Lutz Walter, Suni Tang, Xinxin Tan, Fanglei Shi, Huijuan Pan, Christian Roos, Zhijin Liu and Ming Li

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:79

    Content type: Research

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  6. Several alpine vertebrates share a distribution pattern that extends across the South-western Palearctic but is limited to the main mountain massifs. Although they are usually regarded as cold-adapted species,...

    Authors: Antton Alberdi, Ostaizka Aizpurua, Joxerra Aihartza and Inazio Garin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:77

    Content type: Research

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  7. The popular view on insect sociality is that of a harmonious division of labor among two morphologically distinct and functionally non-overlapping castes. But this is a highly derived state and not a prerequis...

    Authors: Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Fabio S Nascimento and Lynn M Riddiford

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:78

    Content type: Research

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  8. The carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) superfamily is a class of ubiquitous metallo-enzymes that catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. The α-CA family, present in all metazoan clades, is a key ...

    Authors: Nathalie Le Roy, Daniel J Jackson, Benjamin Marie, Paula Ramos-Silva and Frédéric Marin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:75

    Content type: Review

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  9. Many species of ambystomatid salamanders are dependent upon highly variable temporary wetlands for larval development. High larval densities may prompt the expression of a distinct head morphology that may fac...

    Authors: Dale M Jefferson, Maud CO Ferrari, Alicia Mathis, Keith A Hobson, Eric R Britzke, Adam L Crane, Andrew R Blaustein and Douglas P Chivers

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:76

    Content type: Research

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  10. Since its introduction from Taiwan to Europe around 1980, Anguillicola crassus, a natural parasite of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), has acquired the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as a novel definitive ...

    Authors: Urszula Weclawski, Emanuel G Heitlinger, Tobias Baust, Bernhard Klar, Trevor Petney, Yu-San Han and Horst Taraschewski

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:74

    Content type: Research

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  11. Limnognathia maerski is the single species of the recently described taxon, Micrognathozoa. The most conspicuous character of this animal is the complex set of jaws, which resembles an even more intricate version...

    Authors: Nicolas Bekkouche, Reinhardt M Kristensen, Andreas Hejnol, Martin V Sørensen and Katrine Worsaae

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:71

    Content type: Research

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  12. Climate and environmental change have driven widespread changes in body size, particularly declines, across a range of taxonomic groups in recent decades. Size declines could substantially impact on the functi...

    Authors: Tom HE Mason, Marco Apollonio, Roberta Chirichella, Stephen G Willis and Philip A Stephens

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:69

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:88

  13. Freshwater fishes of the genus Esox are found throughout the Holarctic region. The northern pike (E. lucius) has a circumpolar distribution whereas the assumed sister species the Amur pike (E. reichertii) is only...

    Authors: Anna Skog, L Asbjørn Vøllestad, Nils Chr Stenseth, Alexander Kasumyan and Kjetill S Jakobsen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:67

    Content type: Research

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  14. Many prey species around the world are suffering declines due to a variety of interacting causes such as land use change, climate change, invasive species and novel disease. Recent studies on the ecological ro...

    Authors: Benjamin L Allen, Lee R Allen, Richard M Engeman and Luke K-P Leung

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:56

    Content type: Research

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  15. When birds fly in cluttered environments, they must tailor their flight to the gaps that they traverse. We trained budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, to fly through a vertically oriented gap of variable width,...

    Authors: Ingo Schiffner, Hong D Vo, Partha S Bhagavatula and Mandyam V Srinivasan

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:64

    Content type: Research

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  16. In previous work, the authors described a software package for the digitisation of 3D landmarks for use in geometric morphometrics. In this paper, we describe extensions to this software that allow semi-automa...

    Authors: Paul A Bromiley, Anja C Schunke, Hossein Ragheb, Neil A Thacker and Diethard Tautz

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:61

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae possess a s...

    Authors: Damien Olivier, Bruno Frédérich, Milton Spanopoulos-Zarco, Eduardo F Balart and Eric Parmentier

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:63

    Content type: Research

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  18. Daphnia magna exhibits a parthenogenetic reproductive cycle linked to a moulting cycle, but regulatory mechanisms of neither moulting nor reproductive cycle are understood in daphnids. Moulting is regulated by ec...

    Authors: Eri Sumiya, Yukiko Ogino, Hitoshi Miyakawa, Chizue Hiruta, Kenji Toyota, Shinichi Miyagawa and Taisen Iguchi

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:60

    Content type: Research

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  19. Chitin is a biopolymer that forms the exoskeleton of arthropods, and is found in the cell walls of fungi. It has a wide range of uses in fields such as cosmetics, pharmacy, medicine, bioengineering, agricultur...

    Authors: Murat Kaya, Osman Seyyar, Talat Baran and Tuncay Turkes

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:59

    Content type: Research

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  20. The vertebrate brain is a highly energy consuming organ that requires continuous energy provision. Energy metabolism of ectothermic organisms is directly affected by environmental temperature changes and has b...

    Authors: Yung-Che Tseng, Sian-Tai Liu, Marian Y Hu, Ruo-Dong Chen, Jay-Ron Lee and Pung-Pung Hwang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:53

    Content type: Research

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  21. Cephalopods have evolved strong acid–base regulatory abilities to cope with CO2 induced pH fluctuations in their extracellular compartments to protect gas transport via highly pH sensitive hemocyanins. To date, t...

    Authors: Marian Y Hu, Ying-Jey Guh, Meike Stumpp, Jay-Ron Lee, Ruo-Dong Chen, Po-Hsuan Sung, Yu-Chi Chen, Pung-Pung Hwang and Yung-Che Tseng

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:55

    Content type: Research

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  22. Morphological integration and modularity depend on genetic covariation between traits, which emerges from pleiotropic effects of single loci and genetic linkage between loci. Since chromosomal reorganizations ...

    Authors: Jessica Martínez-Vargas, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Nuria Medarde, María José López-Fuster and Jacint Ventura

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:51

    Content type: Research

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  23. In contact zones, genetic mixing of two taxa can be restricted by prezygotic (e.g. assortative mating) or postzygotic (lower fitness of hybrid offspring) barriers, or a combination of the two. A hybrid zone be...

    Authors: Miriam Liedvogel, Keith W Larson, Max Lundberg, Arzu Gursoy, Leonard I Wassenaar, Keith A Hobson, Staffan Bensch and Susanne Åkesson

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:52

    Content type: Research

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  24. All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental condi...

    Authors: Nicholas PC Horrocks, Kathryn Hine, Arne Hegemann, Henry K Ndithia, Mohammed Shobrak, Stéphane Ostrowski, Joseph B Williams, Kevin D Matson and B Irene Tieleman

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:49

    Content type: Research

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  25. As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of ani...

    Authors: Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz and James J Valdés

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:47

    Content type: Research

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  26. The transfer of antibodies from mother to offspring is key to protecting young animals from disease and can have a major impact on responses to infection and offspring fitness. Such maternal effects also allow...

    Authors: Christina M Coakley, Vincent Staszewski, Katherine A Herborn and Emma JA Cunningham

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:46

    Content type: Research

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  27. Many potential hosts of social parasites recognize and reject foreign intruders, and reduce or altogether escape the negative impacts of parasitism. The ontogenetic basis of whether and how avian hosts recogni...

    Authors: Csaba Moskát, Miklós Bán and Márk E Hauber

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:45

    Content type: Research

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  28. In insects, the pumping of the dorsal heart causes circulation of hemolymph throughout the central body cavity, but not within the interior of long body appendages. Hemolymph exchange in these dead-end structu...

    Authors: Reinhold Hustert, Matthias Frisch, Alexander Böhm and Günther Pass

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:43

    Content type: Research

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  29. The posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala is essential for processing reproductively salient sensory information in rodents. This is the initial brain structure where information from olfactory system and ...

    Authors: Shantala Arundathi Hari Dass and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:42

    Content type: Research

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  30. Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is encroaching on natural habitats and decreasing biodiversity, although it is creating new habitats for some species. The Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is frequent...

    Authors: Petra Sumasgutner, Erwin Nemeth, Graham Tebb, Harald W Krenn and Anita Gamauf

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:48

    Content type: Research

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  31. Life history theories predict that investment in current reproduction comes at a cost for future reproduction and survival. Oxidative stress is one of the best documented mechanisms underlying costs of reprodu...

    Authors: Marine I Plumel, Antoine Stier, Danièle Thiersé, Alain van Dorsselaer, François Criscuolo and Fabrice Bertile

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:41

    Content type: Research

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  32. Incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization are two major nonexclusive causes of haplotype sharing between species. Distinguishing between these two processes is notoriously difficult as they can generate sim...

    Authors: Wenjuan Wang, Chuanyin Dai, Per Alström, Chunlan Zhang, Yanhua Qu, Shou-Hsien Li, Xiaojun Yang, Na Zhao, Gang Song and Fumin Lei

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:40

    Content type: Research

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  33. Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods o...

    Authors: Paul R Hope, Kristine Bohmann, M Thomas P Gilbert, Marie Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza, Orly Razgour and Gareth Jones

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:39

    Content type: Research

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  34. The Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) is a eusocial, subterranean mammal, which exhibits an extreme reproductive skew with a single female (queen) monopolizing reproduction in each colony. Non-reproductive...

    Authors: Cornelia Voigt, Manfred Gahr, Stefan Leitner, Heike Lutermann and Nigel Bennett

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:38

    Content type: Research

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  35. Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropi...

    Authors: Gilmar Perbiche-Neves, Daniel Previattelli, Marcio R Pie, Andressa Duran, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Geoffrey A Boxshall, Marcos G Nogueira and Carlos EF da Rocha

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:36

    Content type: Research

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