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  1. RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool for knocking-down gene function in diverse taxa including arthropods for both basic biological research and application in pest control. The conservation ...

    Authors: Sonja Mehlhorn, Vera S. Hunnekuhl, Sven Geibel, Ralf Nauen and Gregor Bucher

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:60

    Content type: Review

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  2. Efficient transfer of chemical signals is important for successful mating in many animal species. Multiple evolutionary lineages of animals evolved direct sex pheromone transmission during traumatic mating—the...

    Authors: Lisa M. Schulte, An Martel, Raciel Cruz-Elizalde, Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista and Franky Bossuyt

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:59

    Content type: Research

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  3. A basal spicule of the hexactinellid sponge Monorhaphis chuni may reach up to 3 m in length and 10 mm in diameter, an extreme case of large spicule size. Generally, sponge spicules are of scales from micrometers ...

    Authors: Andrzej Pisera, Magdalena Łukowiak, Sylvie Masse, Konstantin Tabachnick, Jane Fromont, Hermann Ehrlich and Marco Bertolino

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

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  4. Centipedes are terrestrial, predatory arthropods with specialized sensory organs. However, many aspects of their sensory biology are still unknown. This also concerns hygroreception, which is especially import...

    Authors: Andy Sombke, Jörg Rosenberg, Gero Hilken and Carsten H. G. Müller

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:57

    Content type: Research

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  5. Density-dependent change in aggressive behavior contributes to the population regulation of many small rodents, but the underlying neurological mechanisms have not been examined in field conditions. We hypothe...

    Authors: Shuli Huang, Guoliang Li, Yongliang Pan, Jing Liu, Jidong Zhao, Xin Zhang, Wei Lu, Xinrong Wan, Charles J. Krebs, Zuoxin Wang, Wenxuan Han and Zhibin Zhang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:56

    Content type: Research

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  6. Mammalian mandible and cranium are well-established model systems for studying canalization and developmental stability (DS) as two elements of developmental homeostasis. Nematode infections are usually acquir...

    Authors: Vida Jojić, Borislav Čabrilo, Olivera Bjelić-Čabrilo, Vladimir M. Jovanović, Ivana Budinski, Mladen Vujošević and Jelena Blagojević

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:55

    Content type: Research

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  7. Kinorhynch segmentation differs from the patterns found in Chordata, Arthropoda and Annelida which have coeloms and circulatory systems. Due to these differences and their obsolete status as ‘Aschelminthes’, t...

    Authors: Maria Herranz, Taeseo Park, Maikon Di Domenico, Brian S. Leander, Martin V. Sørensen and Katrine Worsaae

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:54

    Content type: Research

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  8. Most living marine organisms have a biphasic life cycle dependent on metamorphosis and settlement. These critical life-history events mean that a developmentally competent larva undergoes a range of coordinate...

    Authors: Paula Suarez-Bregua, Sofia Rosendo, Pilar Comesaña, Lucia Sánchez-Ruiloba, Paloma Morán, Miquel Planas and Josep Rotllant

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research

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  9. The Yarkand hare (Lepus yarkandensis Günther, 1875) is endemic to oasis and desert areas around the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of northwest China; however, genome-wide information for th...

    Authors: Buweihailiqiemu Ababaikeri, Yucong Zhang, Huiying Dai and Wenjuan Shan

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:50

    Content type: Research

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  10. Quantity discrimination, the ability to discriminate a magnitude of difference or discrete numerical information, plays a key role in animal behavior. While quantitative ability has been well documented in fis...

    Authors: Feng-Chun Lin, Martin J. Whiting, Ming-Ying Hsieh, Pei-Jen Lee Shaner and Si-Min Lin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research

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  11. Temperate bat species use extended torpor to conserve energy when ambient temperatures are low and food resources are scarce. Previous research suggests that migratory bat species and species known to roost in...

    Authors: Riley F. Bernard, Emma V. Willcox, Reilly T. Jackson, Veronica A. Brown and Gary F. McCracken

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research

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  12. In many mammalian species, once the permanent teeth have erupted, the only change to dentition is a gradual loss of tooth surface/height through wear. The crown of the teeth cannot be repaired once worn. When ...

    Authors: Roberta Chirichella, Anna Maria De Marinis, Boštjan Pokorny and Marco Apollonio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research

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  13. Ant colonies are plagued by a diversity of arthropod guests, which adopt various strategies to avoid or to withstand host attacks. Chemical mimicry of host recognition cues is, for example, a common integratio...

    Authors: Christoph von Beeren, Adrian Brückner, Philipp O. Hoenle, Bryan Ospina-Jara, Daniel J. C. Kronauer and Nico Blüthgen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research

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  14. One of the most prominent life-history trade-offs involves the cost of reproduction. Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in this trade-off and has been associated with reduced life span. There is...

    Authors: Paul Juan Jacobs, Daniel William Hart and Nigel Charles Bennett

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:45

    Content type: Research

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  15. Many annelids, including well-studied species such as Platynereis, show similar structured segments along their body axis (homonomous segmentation). However, numerous annelid species diverge from this pattern and...

    Authors: Nadezhda Rimskaya-Korsakova, Nadezda Karaseva, Timofei Pimenov, Hans Tore Rapp, Eve Southward, Elena Temereva and Katrine Worsaae

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  16. Interspecific interactions within ecological networks can influence animal fitness and behaviour, including nest-site selection of birds and ants. Previous studies revealed that nesting birds and ants may bene...

    Authors: Marta Maziarz, Richard K. Broughton, Luca Pietro Casacci, Grzegorz Hebda, István Maák, Gema Trigos-Peral and Magdalena Witek

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:43

    Content type: Research

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  17. Mitochondrial function involves the interplay between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Such mitonuclear interactions can be disrupted by the introgression of mitochondrial DNA between taxa or divergent popul...

    Authors: Yuting Ding, Wenli Chen, Qianqian Li, Stephen J. Rossiter and Xiuguang Mao

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research

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  18. Many animals lower their metabolic rate in response to low temperatures and scarcity of food in the winter in phenomena called hibernation or overwintering. Living at high altitude on the Tibetan Plateau where...

    Authors: Yonggang Niu, Xuejing Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Tisen Xu, Lifeng Zhu, Kenneth B. Storey and Qiang Chen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:41

    Content type: Research

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  19. Amphibian biodiversity is declining globally, with over 40% of species being considered threatened to become extinct. Crucial to the success of conservation initiatives are a comprehensive understanding of lif...

    Authors: Jeffrey P. Ethier, Aurore Fayard, Peter Soroye, Daeun Choi, Marc J. Mazerolle and Vance L. Trudeau

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:40

    Content type: Review

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  20. Poison frogs are known for the outstanding diversity of alkaloid-based chemical defences with promising therapeutic applications. However, current knowledge about chemical defences in Dendrobatoidea superfamil...

    Authors: Mabel Gonzalez, Pablo Palacios-Rodriguez, Jack Hernandez-Restrepo, Marco González-Santoro, Adolfo Amézquita, Andrés E. Brunetti and Chiara Carazzone

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

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  21. In egg-laying animals, mothers can influence the developmental environment and thus the phenotype of their offspring by secreting various substances into the egg yolk. In birds, recent studies have demonstrate...

    Authors: Lucia Mentesana, Martin N. Andersson, Stefania Casagrande, Wolfgang Goymann, Caroline Isaksson and Michaela Hau

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  22. The acoustic adaptation hypothesis (AAH) states that signals should evolve towards an optimal transmission of the intended information from senders to intended receivers given the environmental constraints of ...

    Authors: Longhui Zhao, Juan C. Santos, Jichao Wang, Jianghong Ran, Yezhong Tang and Jianguo Cui

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  23. Primate colour vision depends on a matrix of photoreceptors, a neuronal post receptoral structure and a combination of genes that culminate in different sensitivity through the visual spectrum. Along with a co...

    Authors: Leonardo Dutra Henriques, Einat Hauzman, Daniela Maria Oliveira Bonci, Belinda S. W. Chang, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz, Givago da Silva Souza, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira, Olavo de Faria Galvão, Paulo Roney Kilpp Goulart and Dora Fix Ventura

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:36

    Content type: Research

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  24. The endless struggle to survive has driven harmless species to evolve elaborate strategies of deceiving predators. Batesian mimicry involves imitations of noxious species’ warning signals by palatable mimics. ...

    Authors: Marta Skowron Volponi, Luca Pietro Casacci, Paolo Volponi and Francesca Barbero

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:35

    Content type: Research

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  25. Warm-adapted species survived the cold stages of the past glacial-interglacial cycles in southern European peninsulas and recolonized major parts of Central and Northern Europe in the wake of postglacial warmi...

    Authors: Thomas Schmitt, Uwe Fritz, Massimo Delfino, Werner Ulrich and Jan Christian Habel

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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  26. Human actions have altered natural ecosystems worldwide. Among the many pollutants released to the environment, ionizing radiation can cause severe damage at different molecular and functional levels. The acci...

    Authors: Pablo Burraco, Jean-Marc Bonzom, Clément Car, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Sergey Gashchak and Germán Orizaola

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

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  27. Parity mode (oviparity/viviparity) importantly affects the ecology, morphology, physiology, biogeography and evolution of organisms. The main hypotheses explaining the evolution and maintenance of viviparity a...

    Authors: J. L. Horreo, A. Jiménez-Valverde and P. S. Fitze

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:32

    Content type: Research

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  28. Comparative cognition has historically focused on a few taxa such as primates, birds or rodents. However, a broader perspective is essential to understand how different selective pressures affect cognition in ...

    Authors: Alvaro Lopez Caicoya, Federica Amici, Conrad Ensenyat and Montserrat Colell

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  29. Gelatinous zooplankton can be difficult to preserve morphologically due to unique physical properties of their cellular and acellular components. The relatively large volume of mesoglea leads to distortion of ...

    Authors: Dorothy G. Mitchell, Allison Edgar and Mark Q. Martindale

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:29

    Content type: Methodology

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  30. Signal detection is crucial to survival and successful reproduction, and animals often modify behavioral decisions based on information they obtained from the social context. Undeniably, the decision-making in...

    Authors: Ke Deng, Ya Zhou, Qiao-Ling He, Bi-Cheng Zhu, Tong-Liang Wang, Ji-Chao Wang and Jian-Guo Cui

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  31. In syllids (Annelida, Syllidae), the regenerative blastema was subject of many studies in the mid and late XXth century. This work on syllid regeneration showed that the blastema is developed by a process of dedi...

    Authors: Rannyele Passos Ribeiro, Bernhard Egger, Guillermo Ponz-Segrelles and M. Teresa Aguado

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:27

    Content type: Research

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  32. Trophic interactions are key processes, which determine the ecological function and performance of organisms. Many decapod crustaceans feed on plant material as a source for essential nutrients, e.g. polyunsat...

    Authors: Meike Stumpp, Reinhard Saborowski, Simon Jungblut, Hung-Chang Liu and Wilhelm Hagen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  33. Animal communities have complex patterns of ecological segregation at different levels according to food resources, habitats, behavior, and activity patterns. Understanding these patterns among the community i...

    Authors: Battogtokh Nasanbat, Francisco Ceacero and Samiya Ravchig

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:25

    Content type: Research

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  34. Interannual variation in resource abundance has become more unpredictable, and food shortages have increasingly occurred in the recent decades. However, compared to seasonal fluctuations in resource abundance,...

    Authors: Jinjin Hou, Lei Li, Yafang Wang, Wenjuan Wang, Huiying Zhan, Nianhua Dai and Ping Lu

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:24

    Content type: Research

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  35. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a high-affinity plasma protein that binds glucocorticoids (GCs) and regulates their biological activities. The structural and functional properties of CBG are crucial t...

    Authors: Hai-Yan Lin, Gang Song, Fumin Lei, Dongming Li and Yanhua Qu

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:22

    Content type: Review

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  36. Birds exhibit an enormous diversity in adult skull shape (disparity), while their embryonic chondrocrania are considered to be conserved across species. However, there may be chondrocranial features that are d...

    Authors: Evelyn Hüppi, Ingmar Werneburg and Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:21

    Content type: Review

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  37. Mating generally occurs after individuals reach adulthood. In many arthropods including spiders, the adult stage is marked by a final moult after which the genitalia are fully developed and functional. In seve...

    Authors: Lenka Sentenská, Aileen Neumann, Yael Lubin and Gabriele Uhl

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  38. Postzygote isolation is an important part of species isolation, especially for fish, and it can be divided into two aspects: genetic isolation and ecological isolation. With the increase in parental genetic di...

    Authors: Haoran Gu, Yuanfu Wang, Haoyu Wang, You He, Sihong Deng, Xingheng He, Yi Wu, Kaiyan Xing, Xue Gao, Xuefu He and Zhijian Wang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  39. The jointed appendage is a key novelty in arthropod evolution and arthropod legs are known to vary enormously in relation to function. Among centipedes, the ultimate legs always are distinctly different from l...

    Authors: Andy Sombke and Carsten H. G. Müller

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:17

    Content type: Research

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  40. We tested the hypothesis that deep-sea fishes have poorly mineralized bone relative to shallower-dwelling species using data from a single family that spans a large depth range. The family Liparidae (snailfish...

    Authors: M. E. Gerringer, A. S. Dias, A. A. von Hagel, J. W. Orr, A. P. Summers and S. Farina

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

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  41. Anhydrobiosis can be described as an adaptation to lack of water that enables some organisms, including tardigrades, to survive extreme conditions, even some that do not exist on Earth. The cellular mechanisms...

    Authors: Daria Wojciechowska, Andonis Karachitos, Milena Roszkowska, Wiktor Rzeźniczak, Robert Sobkowiak, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Jakub Z. Kosicki and Hanna Kmita

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  42. Understanding the impacts of past and contemporary climate change on biodiversity is critical for effective conservation. Amphibians have weak dispersal abilities, putting them at risk of habitat fragmentation...

    Authors: Zhenhua Luo, Xiaoyi Wang, Shaofa Yang, Xinlan Cheng, Yang Liu and Junhua Hu

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

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  43. Worker reproduction has an important influence on the social cohesion and efficiency of social insect colonies, but its role in the success of invasive ants has been neglected. We used observations of 233 capt...

    Authors: Pauline Lenancker, Heike Feldhaar, Anja Holzinger, Melinda Greenfield, Angela Strain, Peter Yeeles, Benjamin D. Hoffmann, Wee Tek Tay and Lori Lach

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:13

    Content type: Research

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  44. The theory of delayed life history effects assumes that phenotype of adult individual results from environmental conditions experienced at birth and as juvenile. In seasonal environments, being born late in th...

    Authors: Anna S. Przybylska-Piech, Michał S. Wojciechowski and Małgorzata Jefimow

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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