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  1. Content type: Research

    Through the actions of one or more isoforms of the enzyme 5α-reductase in many male reproductive tissues, circulating testosterone (T) undergoes metabolic conversion into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which bi...

    Authors: Matthew J. Fuxjager, Eric R. Schuppe, John Hoang, Jennifer Chew, Mital Shah and Barney A. Schlinger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:25

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  2. Content type: Research

    Species-specific strategies for financing the costs of reproduction are well understood, forming a continuum ranging from high to low reliance on stored nutrients. Animals relying mostly on stored reserves are...

    Authors: Kim Jaatinen, Markus Öst and Keith A. Hobson

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:24

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  3. Content type: Review

    An external skeleton is an essential part of the body plan of many animals and is thought to be one of the key factors that enabled the great expansion in animal diversity and disparity during the Cambrian exp...

    Authors: Kevin M. Kocot, Felipe Aguilera, Carmel McDougall, Daniel J. Jackson and Bernard M. Degnan

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:23

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  4. Content type: Research

    The expression of animal personality is indicated by patterns of consistency in individual behaviour. Often, the differences exhibited between individuals are consistent across situations. However, between som...

    Authors: Kyriacos Kareklas, Gareth Arnott, Robert W. Elwood and Richard A. Holland

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:22

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  5. Content type: Research

    Male-male competition and female mating preference are major mechanisms of sexual selection, which influences individual fitness. How male-male competition affects female preference, however, remains poorly un...

    Authors: Saori Yokoi, Satoshi Ansai, Masato Kinoshita, Kiyoshi Naruse, Yasuhiro Kamei, Larry J. Young, Teruhiro Okuyama and Hideaki Takeuchi

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:21

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  6. Content type: Review

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. How...

    Authors: Jente Ottenburghs, Pim van Hooft, Sipke E. van Wieren, Ronald C. Ydenberg and Herbert H. T. Prins

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:20

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  7. Content type: Research

    Brittle stars regenerate their whole arms post-amputation. Amphiura filiformis can now be used for molecular characterization of arm regeneration due to the availability of transcriptomic data. Previous work show...

    Authors: Anna Czarkwiani, Cinzia Ferrario, David Viktor Dylus, Michela Sugni and Paola Oliveri

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:18

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  8. Content type: Research

    Rapid habitat loss and degradation are responsible for population decline in a growing number of species. Understanding the natural history of these species is important for designing conservation strategies, ...

    Authors: Amrita Srivathsan, Andie Ang, Alfried P. Vogler and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:17

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  9. Content type: Research

    Traditional theory assumes that egg recognition and rejection abilities arise as a response against interspecific brood parasitism (IBP). However, rejection also appears in some species that are currently not ...

    Authors: Francisco Ruiz-Raya, Manuel Soler, Gianluca Roncalli, Teresa Abaurrea and Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:16

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  10. Content type: Research

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related sp...

    Authors: Christopher W. Weldon, Leigh Boardman, Danica Marlin and John S. Terblanche

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:15

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  11. Content type: Methodology

    The study of morphology is experiencing a renaissance due to rapid improvements in technologies for 3D visualization of complex internal and external structures. But 3D visualization of the internal structure ...

    Authors: Tomonari Kaji, Keiichi Kakui, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata and A. Richard Palmer

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:14

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  12. Content type: Research

    Wrasses represent the second largest family of marine fishes and display a high diversity of complex colours linked to ecological functions. Recently, red autofluorescent body colouration has been reported in ...

    Authors: Tobias Gerlach, Jennifer Theobald, Nathan S. Hart, Shaun P. Collin and Nico K. Michiels

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:13

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  13. Content type: Research

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated bat populations in North America, with millions of bats dead. WNS is associated with physiological changes in hibernating bats, leading to increased arousals from hiber...

    Authors: Thomas Mikael Lilley, Joseph Samuel Johnson, Lasse Ruokolainen, Elisabeth Jeannine Rogers, Cali Ann Wilson, Spencer Mead Schell, Kenneth Alan Field and DeeAnn Marie Reeder

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:12

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  14. Content type: Research

    Titi monkeys, Callicebus, comprise the most species-rich primate genus—34 species are currently recognised, five of them described since 2005. The lack of molecular data for titi monkeys has meant that little is ...

    Authors: Hazel Byrne, Anthony B. Rylands, Jeferson C. Carneiro, Jessica W. Lynch Alfaro, Fabricio Bertuol, Maria N. F. da Silva, Mariluce Messias, Colin P. Groves, Russell A. Mittermeier, Izeni Farias, Tomas Hrbek, Horacio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio and Jean P. Boubli

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:10

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  15. Content type: Research

    Do evolutionary specializations lead to evolutionary constraint? This appears plausible, particularly when specialization leads to loss of complex adaptations. In the owl monkey lineage, nocturnality clearly a...

    Authors: N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, A. L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Dávalos and B. J. Bradley

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:9

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  16. Content type: Research

    The functional design of skeletal muscles is shaped by conflicting selective pressures between support and propulsion, which becomes even more important as animals get larger. If larger animals were geometrica...

    Authors: Taylor J. M. Dick and Christofer J. Clemente

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:8

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  17. Content type: Research

    Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an inte...

    Authors: A. L. Evans, N. J. Singh, A. Friebe, J. M. Arnemo, T. G. Laske, O. Fröbert, J. E. Swenson and S. Blanc

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:7

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  18. Content type: Research

    Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of ...

    Authors: Wen Bo Liao, Yi Luo, Shang Ling Lou, Di Lu and Robert Jehle

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:6

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  19. Content type: Research

    Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. Little is known about their general morphology, in particular the nervous...

    Authors: Nadezhda N. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Alen Kristof, Vladimir V. Malakhov and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:5

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  20. Content type: Research

    Reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species are produced during normal unstressed metabolic activity in aerobic tissues. Most analytical work uses tissue homogenates, and lacks spatial information on the ...

    Authors: Georgina A. Rivera-Ingraham, Iara Rocchetta, Ulf Bickmeyer, Stefanie Meyer and Doris Abele

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:4

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  21. Content type: Research

    Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures...

    Authors: Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Francisco Ruiz-Raya, Laura Rodríguez and Manuel Soler

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:3

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  22. Content type: Research

    Ascidians can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts, yet these communities remain unexamined for the majority of host ascidians and little is known about host-symbiont interactions.

    Authors: Susanna López-Legentil, Xavier Turon and Patrick M. Erwin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:2

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  23. Content type: Research

    Environmental stressors increase the secretion of glucocorticoids that in turn can shorten telomeres via oxidative damage. Modification of telomere length, as a result of adversity faced early in life, can mod...

    Authors: Verónica Quirici, Claudia Jimena Guerrero, Jesse S. Krause, John C. Wingfield and Rodrigo A. Vásquez

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:1

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  24. Content type: Research

    Studying species with disjunct distributions allows biogeographers to evaluate factors controlling species ranges, limits on gene flow, and allopatric speciation. Here, we use phylogeographic and population ge...

    Authors: Sergio Marchant, Amy L. Moran and Peter B. Marko

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:39

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  25. Content type: Research

    Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and...

    Authors: Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Kristina Noreikiene and Juha Merilä

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:38

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  26. Content type: Research

    Body size variation has played a central role in biogeographical research, however, most studies have aimed to describe trends rather than search for underlying mechanisms. In order to provide a more comprehen...

    Authors: Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Andrew A. Cunningham and Claudio Soto-Azat

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:37

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  27. Content type: Research

    The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Diphyllobothriidea) is one of the most fascinating cestode parasites because it may cause parasitic castration of its second intermediate host, teleost freshwater fishes, due to ...

    Authors: Aneta Yoneva, Tomáš Scholz, Daniel Młocicki and Roman Kuchta

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:35

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  28. Content type: Research

    Myogenesis is currently investigated in a number of invertebrate taxa using combined techniques, including fluorescence labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D imaging, in order to understand anatomical and func...

    Authors: Jorge A. Audino, José Eduardo A. R. Marian, Alen Kristof and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:34

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  29. Content type: Methodology

    Here we present an application of advanced registration and atlas building framework DRAMMS to the automated annotation of mouse mandibles through a series of tests using single and multi-atlas segmentation pa...

    Authors: Ryan Young and A. Murat Maga

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:33

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  30. Content type: Review

    Chemical cues and pheromones guide decisions in organisms throughout the animal kingdom. The neurobiology, function, and evolution of olfaction are particularly well described in insects, and resulting concept...

    Authors: Tyler J. Buchinger, Michael J. Siefkes, Barbara S. Zielinski, Cory O. Brant and Weiming Li

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:32

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  31. Content type: Research

    The astonishing spectrum of scarabaeine lifestyles makes them an attractive group for studies in entomology and evolutionary biology. As a result of adaptions to specific food substrates and textures, the mout...

    Authors: Ming Bai, Sha Li, Yuanyuan Lu, Haidong Yang, Yijie Tong and Xingke Yang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:30

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  32. Content type: Research

    Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are und...

    Authors: Konrad Stolz, Christoph-Rüdiger von Bredow, Yvette M. von Bredow, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan, Tina E. Trenczek and Johannes Strauß

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:29

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  33. Content type: Research

    Though some elements of the bryozoan nervous system were discovered 180 years ago, few studies of their neuromorphology have been undertaken since that time. As a result the general picture of the bryozoan ner...

    Authors: Ksenia V. Shunkina, Olga V. Zaytseva, Viktor V. Starunov and Andrew N. Ostrovsky

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:28

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  34. Content type: Research

    Immunosenescence (deteriorating immune function at old age) affects humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about immunosenescence in natural populations despite its potential importance for populat...

    Authors: Anni Hämäläinen, Brigitte Raharivololona, Pascaline Ravoniarimbinina and Cornelia Kraus

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:25

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  35. Content type: Review

    Invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) from terrestrial haematophagous leeches has recently been proposed as a powerful non-invasive tool with which to detect vertebrate species and thus to survey their populations. ...

    Authors: Ida Bærholm Schnell, Rahel Sollmann, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Mark E. Siddall, Douglas W. Yu, Andreas Wilting and M. Thomas. P. Gilbert

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:24

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  36. Content type: Methodology

    Monitoring large carnivores is a central issue in conservation biology. The wolf (Canis lupus) is the most studied large carnivore in the world. After a massive decline and several local extinctions, mostly due t...

    Authors: Daniela Passilongo, Luca Mattioli, Elena Bassi, László Szabó and Marco Apollonio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:22

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  37. Content type: Research

    Adult birds clean the nest by consuming or transporting feces, which is thought to be important in order to lower the levels of parasites, pathogens and predation at the nest. If nestlings were to defecate whe...

    Authors: Rui-chang Quan, Huan Li, Bo Wang and Eben Goodale

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:21

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  38. Content type: Research

    It has been suggested that rapid range expansion could proceed through evolution in the endocrinological machinery controlling life-history switches. Based on this we tested whether the Colorado potato beetle, Le...

    Authors: Philipp Lehmann, Anne Lyytinen, Saija Piiroinen and Leena Lindström

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:20

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  39. Content type: Research

    The development of ethologically meaningful test paradigms in young animals is an essential step in the study of the ontogeny of animal personality. Here we explore the possibility to integrate offspring separ...

    Authors: Robyn Hudson, Marylin Rangassamy, Amor Saldaña, Oxána Bánszegi and Heiko G Rödel

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S12

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  40. Content type: Research

    An individual's fitness in part depends on the characteristics of the mate so that sexually attractive ornaments, as signals of quality, are used in mate choice. Often such ornaments develop already early in l...

    Authors: E Tobias Krause and Marc Naguib

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S11

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  41. Content type: Review

    Variation in early nutrition is known to play an important role in shaping the behavioural development of individuals. Parental prey selection may have long-lasting behavioural influences. In birds foraging on...

    Authors: Kees van Oers, Gregory M Kohn, Camilla A Hinde and Marc Naguib

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S10

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  42. Content type: Research

    A crucial assumption of animal personality research is that behaviour is consistent over time, showing a high repeatability within individuals. This assumption is often made, sometimes tested using short time ...

    Authors: Yvonne Wuerz and Oliver Krüger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S9

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1