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  1. Invertebrate communities are central to many environmental monitoring programs. In freshwater ecosystems, aquatic macroinvertebrates are collected, identified and then used to infer ecosystem condition. Yet th...

    Authors: Melissa E Carew, Vincent J Pettigrove, Leon Metzeling and Ary A Hoffmann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:45

    Content type: Research

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  2. In biomedical research, a huge variety of different techniques is currently available for the structural examination of small specimens, including conventional light microscopy (LM), transmission electron micr...

    Authors: Stephan Handschuh, Natalie Baeumler, Thomas Schwaha and Bernhard Ruthensteiner

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:44

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choi...

    Authors: Andra Thiel, Anne C Weeda, Jetske G de Boer and Thomas S Hoffmeister

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:43

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Intra-specific variation in melanocyte pigmentation, common in the animal kingdom, has caught the eye of naturalists and biologists for centuries. In vertebrates, dark, eumelanin pigmentation is often genetica...

    Authors: Madeleine F Scriba, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Isabelle Henry, Alexei L Vyssotski, Niels C Rattenborg and Alexandre Roulin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:42

    Content type: Research

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  5. Terrestrial top-predators are expected to regulate and stabilise food webs through their consumptive and non-consumptive effects on sympatric mesopredators and prey. The lethal control of top-predators has the...

    Authors: Benjamin L Allen, Lee R Allen, Richard M Engeman and Luke K-P Leung

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:39

    Content type: Research

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  6. Landing flight in birds is demanding on visual control of velocity, distance to target, and slope of descent. Birds flying in flocks must also keep a common course of landing in order to avoid collisions. Wher...

    Authors: Vlastimil Hart, Erich Pascal Malkemper, Tomáš Kušta, Sabine Begall, Petra Nováková, Vladimír Hanzal, Lukáš Pleskač, Miloš Ježek, Richard Policht, Václav Husinec, Jaroslav Červený and Hynek Burda

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:38

    Content type: Research

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  7. Gastropods are among the most diverse animal clades, and have successfully colonized special habitats such as the marine sand interstitial. Specialized meiofaunal snails and slugs are tiny and worm-shaped. The...

    Authors: Bastian Brenzinger, Gerhard Haszprunar and Michael Schrödl

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:37

    Content type: Research

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  8. Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary ...

    Authors: Carlo Polidori, Angelica Crottini, Lidia Della Venezia, Jesús Selfa, Nicola Saino and Diego Rubolini

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:36

    Content type: Research

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  9. One of the most interesting riddles within crustaceans is the origin of Cladocera (water fleas). Cladocerans are morphologically diverse and in terms of size and body segmentation differ considerably from othe...

    Authors: Martin Fritsch, Olaf RP Bininda-Emonds and Stefan Richter

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:35

    Content type: Research

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  10. The PCR-based analysis of homologous genes has become one of the most powerful approaches for species detection and identification, particularly with the recent availability of Next Generation Sequencing platf...

    Authors: Matthieu Leray, Joy Y Yang, Christopher P Meyer, Suzanne C Mills, Natalia Agudelo, Vincent Ranwez, Joel T Boehm and Ryuji J Machida

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:34

    Content type: Research

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  11. In contrast to mammalian erythrocytes, which have lost their nucleus and mitochondria during maturation, the erythrocytes of almost all other vertebrate species are nucleated throughout their lifespan. Little ...

    Authors: Antoine Stier, Pierre Bize, Quentin Schull, Joffrey Zoll, François Singh, Bernard Geny, Frédéric Gros, Cathy Royer, Sylvie Massemin and François Criscuolo

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:33

    Content type: Research

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  12. Parasitic, commensalistic, and mutualistic guests in social insect colonies often circumvent their hosts’ nestmate recognition system to be accepted. These tolerance strategies include chemical mimicry and che...

    Authors: Florian Menzel, Nico Blüthgen, Till Tolasch, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuß, Till Beuerle and Thomas Schmitt

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:32

    Content type: Research

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  13. Nemertea is one of the least studied lophotrochozoan phyla concerning neurogenesis. The sparse data available do not unambiguously allow for answering questions with respect to the neural groundplan of the phy...

    Authors: Sabine Hindinger, Thomas Schwaha and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:31

    Content type: Research

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  14. Risk assessment occurs over different temporal and spatial scales and is selected for when individuals show an adaptive response to a threat. Here, we test if birds respond to the threat of brood parasitism us...

    Authors: Sonia Kleindorfer, Christine Evans, Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Jeremy Robertson, Matteo Griggio and Herbert Hoi

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:30

    Content type: Research

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  15. Females have often been shown to exhibit preferences for certain male traits. However, little is known about behavioural rules females use when searching for mates in their natural habitat. We investigated mat...

    Authors: Ivonne Meuche, Oscar Brusa, K Eduard Linsenmair, Alexander Keller and Heike Pröhl

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:29

    Content type: Research

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  16. Ancient DNA has revolutionized conservation genetic studies as it allows monitoring of the genetic variability of species through time and predicting the impact of ecosystems’ threats on future population dyna...

    Authors: Oscar Ramírez, Elena Gómez-Díaz, Iñigo Olalde, Juan Carlos Illera, Juan Carlos Rando, Jacob González-Solís and Carles Lalueza-Fox

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:28

    Content type: Short report

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  17. In long-distance migrants, a considerably higher proportion of time and energy is allocated to stopovers rather than to flights. Stopover duration and departure decisions affect consequently subsequent flight ...

    Authors: Heiko Schmaljohann, Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt, Beat Naef-Daenzer, Rolf Nagel, Ivan Maggini, Marc Bulte and Franz Bairlein

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:26

    Content type: Research

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  18. Hybridization is a common phenomenon in fish and is considered to be a major source of diversification. Deciphering the remoulding of genomic regions and phenotypes in zones where hybrid specimens occur is of ...

    Authors: Melthide Sinama, André Gilles, Caroline Costedoat, Emmanuel Corse, Jean-Michel Olivier, Rémi Chappaz and Nicolas Pech

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:22

    Content type: Research

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  19. We examined patterns of genetic divergence in 26 Mediterranean populations of the semi-terrestrial beachflea Orchestia montagui using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I), microsatellite (eight loci) and ...

    Authors: Laura Pavesi, Ralph Tiedemann, Elvira De Matthaeis and Valerio Ketmaier

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:21

    Content type: Research

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  20. Gastropoda are guided by several sensory organs in the head region, referred to as cephalic sensory organs (CSOs). These CSOs are innervated by distinct nerves. This study proposes a unified terminology for th...

    Authors: Annette Klussmann-Kolb, Roger P Croll and Sid Staubach

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:20

    Content type: Research

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  21. Loricifera is a group of small, marine animals, with undetermined phylogenetic relationships within Ecdysozoa (molting protostome animals). Despite their well-known external morphology, data on the internal an...

    Authors: Ricardo C Neves, Xavier Bailly, Francesca Leasi, Heinrich Reichert, Martin V Sørensen and Reinhardt M Kristensen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:19

    Content type: Research

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  22. The vertebrate head is a highly derived trait with a heavy concentration of sophisticated sensory organs that allow complex behaviour in this lineage. The head sensory structures arise during vertebrate develo...

    Authors: Martin Sebastijan Šestak, Vedran Božičević, Robert Bakarić, Vedran Dunjko and Tomislav Domazet-Lošo

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:18

    Content type: Research

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  23. The axial skeleton is one of the defining evolutionary landmarks of vertebrates. How this structure develops and how it has evolved in the different vertebrate lineages is, however, a matter of debate. Vertebr...

    Authors: David Buckley, Viktor Molnár, Gábor Németh, Örs Petneházy and Judit Vörös

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:17

    Content type: Debate

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  24. The introduction and statistical formalisation of landmark-based methods for analysing biological shape has made a major impact on comparative morphometric analyses. However, a satisfactory solution for includ...

    Authors: Hossein Ragheb, Neil A Thacker, Paul A Bromiley, Diethard Tautz and Anja C Schunke

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:16

    Content type: Research

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  25. A so called “taxonomic impediment” has been recognized as a major obstacle to biodiversity research for the past two decades. Numerous remedies were then proposed. However, neither significant progress in term...

    Authors: Alexander Riedel, Katayo Sagata, Yayuk R Suhardjono, Rene Tänzler and Michael Balke

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:15

    Content type: Debate

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  26. Animals are often conspicuously colored and explanations range from aposematism and mimicry to sexual selection. Although sexual selection explains vivid coloration in males, functional significance of vivid c...

    Authors: Vladimír Remeš and Beata Matysioková

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:14

    Content type: Research

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  27. The major climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Age heavily influenced the distribution of species and left their mark on intraspecific genetic diversity. Past range shifts can be reconstructed with ...

    Authors: Ben Wielstra, Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailović, Spartak N Litvinchuk, Bastian T Reijnen, Andrew K Skidmore, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Albertus G Toxopeus, Nikolay Tzankov, Tanja Vukov and Jan W Arntzen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:13

    Content type: Research

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  28. The presence of two sexually active male morphs with different reproductive tactics in a single species is rare among mammals. The most striking case of bimaturism among primates is exhibited by the orangutan (Po...

    Authors: Lynda P Dunkel, Natasha Arora, Maria A van Noordwijk, Sri Suci Utami Atmoko, Angga Prathama Putra, Michael Krützen and Carel P van Schaik

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:12

    Content type: Research

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  29. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is related to ecology, behaviour and life history of organisms. Rensch’s rule states that SSD increases with overall body size in species where males are the larger sex, while decr...

    Authors: Wen Bo Liao, Yu Zeng, Cai Quan Zhou and Robert Jehle

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:10

    Content type: Research

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  30. Sociality has evolved independently multiple times across the spider phylogeny, and despite wide taxonomic and geographical breadth the social species are characterized by a common geographical constrain to tr...

    Authors: Marija Majer, Jens-Christian Svenning and Trine Bilde

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:9

    Content type: Research

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  31. Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on ...

    Authors: Beate Apfelbeck, Kim G Mortega, Sarah Kiefer, Silke Kipper and Wolfgang Goymann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:8

    Content type: Research

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  32. Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are aquatic insects living on the water surface. They are equipped with four compound eyes, an upper pair viewing above the water surface and a lower submerged pair vi...

    Authors: Chan Lin and Nicholas J Strausfeld

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:7

    Content type: Research

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  33. Many animals use information acquired from recent experiences to modify their responses to new situations. Animals’ decisions in contests also depend on their previous experience: after recent victories indivi...

    Authors: Ryan L Earley, Chung-Kai Lu, I-Han Lee, Stephanie C Wong and Yuying Hsu

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:6

    Content type: Research

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  34. Patterns of biodiversity in the subterranean realm are typically different from those encountered on the Earth’s surface. The Dinaric karst of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a global hotspot o...

    Authors: Helena Bilandžija, Brian Morton, Martina Podnar and Helena Ćetković

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:5

    Content type: Research

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  35. Creation and use of the scientific names of animals are ruled by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Until recently, publication of new names in a work produced with ink on paper was required fo...

    Authors: Alessandro Minelli

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:4

    Content type: Commentary

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  36. Insects have evolved a wide range of mechanisms to defend themselves and their offspring against antagonists. One of these strategies involves the utilization of antimicrobial compounds provided by symbiotic b...

    Authors: Sabrina Koehler, Jan Doubský and Martin Kaltenpoth

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:3

    Content type: Research

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  37. Many mammals have evolved highly adapted hearing associated with ecological specialisation. Of these, bats possess the widest frequency range of vocalisations and associated hearing sensitivities, with frequen...

    Authors: Kalina TJ Davies, Ibnu Maryanto and Stephen J Rossiter

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:2

    Content type: Research

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  38. Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nemato...

    Authors: Sofie Derycke, Thierry Backeljau and Tom Moens

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2013 10:1

    Content type: Review

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  39. Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making) ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to i...

    Authors: Olivier Delattre, Rumsaïs Blatrix, Nicolas Châline, Stéphane Chameron, Anne Fédou, Chloé Leroy and Pierre Jaisson

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:38

    Content type: Research

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  40. One central concept in evolutionary ecology is that current and residual reproductive values are negatively linked by the so-called cost of reproduction. Previous studies examining the nature of this cost sugg...

    Authors: Antoine Stier, Sophie Reichert, Sylvie Massemin, Pierre Bize and François Criscuolo

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:37

    Content type: Research

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  41. Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiologic...

    Authors: Marina Scheumann, Anna-Elisa Roser, Wiebke Konerding, Eva Bleich, Hans-Jürgen Hedrich and Elke Zimmermann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:36

    Content type: Research

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  42. Many Ophidiidae are active in dark environments and display complex sonic apparatus morphologies. However, sound recordings are scarce and little is known about acoustic communication in this family. This pape...

    Authors: Loïc Kéver, Kelly S Boyle, Branko Dragičević, Jakov Dulčić, Margarida Casadevall and Eric Parmentier

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:34

    Content type: Research

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