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  1. Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in c...

    Authors: Susanne Kuehnel and Alexander Kupfer
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:12
  2. The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, whi...

    Authors: Martina R Crole and John T Soley
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:11
  3. The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual acuity of adult zebrafish by assessing the optokinetic reflex. Using a modified commercially available optomotor device (OptoMotry®), virtual three-dimensional ...

    Authors: Christoph Tappeiner, Simon Gerber, Volker Enzmann, Jasmin Balmer, Anna Jazwinska and Markus Tschopp
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:10
  4. A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and da...

    Authors: Patrick S York, Scott F Cummins, Sandie M Degnan, Ben J Woodcroft and Bernard M Degnan
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:9
  5. Many coral reef fishes undergo habitat and diet shifts during ontogeny. However, studies focusing on the physiological and morphological adaptations that may prepare them for these transitions are relatively s...

    Authors: Bruno Frédérich, Orphal Colleye, Gilles Lepoint and David Lecchini
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:8
  6. Male monogyny in the absence of paternal investment is arguably one of the most puzzling mating systems. Recent evidence suggests that males of monogynous species adjust their life-history and their mating dec...

    Authors: Klaas W Welke, Stefanie M Zimmer and Jutta M Schneider
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:7
  7. Honey bees, Apis mellifera, have a diverse community of pathogens. Previous research has mostly focused on bacterial brood diseases of high virulence, but milder diseases caused by fungal pathogens have recently ...

    Authors: Svjetlana Vojvodic, Jacobus J Boomsma, Jørgen Eilenberg and Annette B Jensen
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:5
  8. Osmotic stress transcriptional factor 1 (Ostf1) was firstly identified in tilapia in 2005. Then numerous studies have investigated its regulation and expression profile in fish gill tissues in related to osmor...

    Authors: William KF Tse, Sheung C Chow and Chris KC Wong
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2012 9:3
  9. Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fis...

    Authors: Hin-Kiu Mok, Eric Parmentier, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Kai-En Tsai, Pai-Ho Chiu and Michael L Fine
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:31
  10. While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of poten...

    Authors: Petra Quillfeldt, Elena Arriero, Javier Martínez, Juan F Masello and Santiago Merino
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:26
  11. Taxonomy or biological systematics is the basic scientific discipline of biology, postulating hypotheses of identity and relationships, on which all other natural sciences dealing with organisms relies. However, ...

    Authors: Heike Wägele, Annette Klussmann-Kolb, Michael Kuhlmann, Gerhard Haszprunar, David Lindberg, André Koch and J Wolfgang Wägele
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:25
  12. Maternal effects mediated by egg size and quality may profoundly affect offspring development and performance, and mothers may adjust egg traits according to environmental or social influences. In avian specie...

    Authors: Diego Rubolini, Maria Romano, Kristen J Navara, Filiz Karadas, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli and Nicola Saino
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:24
  13. The mechanisms underlying the switching from an asexual to a sexual mode of reproduction, and vice versa, remain unknown in metazoans. In planarians, asexual worms acquire cryptic sexuality when fed with sexual w...

    Authors: Kazuya Kobayashi and Motonori Hoshi
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:23
  14. Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem s...

    Authors: James E Bron, Dagmar Frisch, Erica Goetze, Stewart C Johnson, Carol Eunmi Lee and Grace A Wyngaard
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:22
  15. Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a ...

    Authors: Daniel JC Kronauer, Marcell K Peters, Caspar Schöning and Jacobus J Boomsma
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:20
  16. In the adult males of helminthomorph millipedes, one or two pairs of legs in the anterior part of the trunk are strongly modified into sexual appendages (gonopods) used for sperm transfer during the copula. Go...

    Authors: Leandro Drago, Giuseppe Fusco, Elena Garollo and Alessandro Minelli
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:19
  17. The now thriving field of neurophylogeny that links the morphology of the nervous system to early evolutionary events relies heavily on detailed descriptions of the neuronal architecture of taxa under scrutiny...

    Authors: Patrick Beckers, Simone Faller and Rudi Loesel
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:17
  18. While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Ande...

    Authors: Juan F Masello, Petra Quillfeldt, Gopi K Munimanda, Nadine Klauke, Gernot Segelbacher, H Martin Schaefer, Mauricio Failla, Maritza Cortés and Yoshan Moodley
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:16
  19. Evolutionary arms-races between avian brood parasites and their hosts have typically resulted in some spectacular adaptations, namely remarkable host ability to recognize and reject alien eggs and, in turn, so...

    Authors: Tomáš Grim
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:14
  20. Cooperation and conflict in social insects are closely linked to the genetic structure of the colony. Kin selection theory predicts conflict over the production of males between the workers and the queen and b...

    Authors: Anett Huth-Schwarz, Adolfo León, Rémy Vandame, Robin FA Moritz and F Bernhard Kraus
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:13
  21. Holocentrids (squirrelfish and soldierfish) are vocal reef fishes whose calls and sound-producing mechanisms have been studied in some species only. The present study aims to compare sound-producing mechanisms...

    Authors: Eric Parmentier, Pierre Vandewalle, Christophe Brié, Laura Dinraths and David Lecchini
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:12
  22. Ectoprocta is a large lophotrochozoan clade of colonial suspension feeders comprising over 5.000 extant species. Their phylogenetic position within the Lophotrochzoa remains controversially discussed, but also...

    Authors: Thomas Schwaha, Timothy S Wood and Andreas Wanninger
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:11
  23. Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the de...

    Authors: Christine HM Engelhardt, Peter Haase and Steffen U Pauls
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:10
  24. Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4) plays a central role in the humo...

    Authors: Dagmar Clough, Peter M Kappeler and Lutz Walter
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:9
  25. Rescuing amphibian diversity is an achievable conservation challenge. Disease mitigation is one essential component of population management. Here we assess existing disease mitigation strategies, some in earl...

    Authors: Douglas C Woodhams, Jaime Bosch, Cheryl J Briggs, Scott Cashins, Leyla R Davis, Antje Lauer, Erin Muths, Robert Puschendorf, Benedikt R Schmidt, Brandon Sheafor and Jamie Voyles
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:8
  26. The genetic structure of the marble trout Salmo trutta marmoratus, an endemic salmonid of northern Italy and the Balkan peninsula, was explored at the macro- and micro-scale level using a combination of mitochond...

    Authors: José M Pujolar, Alvise N Lucarda, Mauro Simonato and Tomaso Patarnello
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:7
  27. The detailed interpretation of mass phenomena such as human escape panic or swarm behaviour in birds, fish and insects requires detailed analysis of the 3D movements of individual participants. Here, we descri...

    Authors: Gerald Kastberger, Michael Maurer, Frank Weihmann, Matthias Ruether, Thomas Hoetzl, Ilse Kranner and Horst Bischof
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:3
  28. There is a long-standing controversial about how parthenogenetic species can be defined in absence of a generally accepted species concept for this reproductive mode. An integrative approach was suggested, com...

    Authors: Michael Heethoff, Michael Laumann, Gerd Weigmann and Günther Raspotnig
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2011 8:2
  29. Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'br...

    Authors: Stefan Richter, Rudi Loesel, Günter Purschke, Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Gerhard Scholtz, Thomas Stach, Lars Vogt, Andreas Wanninger, Georg Brenneis, Carmen Döring, Simone Faller, Martin Fritsch, Peter Grobe, Carsten M Heuer, Sabrina Kaul, Ole S Møller…
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2010 7:29
  30. Mating plugs that males place onto the female genital tract are generally assumed to prevent remating with other males. Mating plugs are usually explained as a consequence of male-male competition in multiply ...

    Authors: Nadine Timmermeyer, Tobias Gerlach, Christian Guempel, Johanna Knoche, Jens F Pfann, Daniel Schliessmann and Nico K Michiels
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2010 7:28
  31. Intra-specific competition occurs in all animal species and can lead to escalated conflict. Overt fighting entails the risk of injury or death, and is usually avoided through the use of conventions or pre-figh...

    Authors: Adam L Cronin and Thibaud Monnin
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2010 7:27
  32. The identification of vast numbers of unknown organisms using DNA sequences becomes more and more important in ecological and biodiversity studies. In this context, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c ox...

    Authors: Michael J Raupach, Jonas J Astrin, Karsten Hannig, Marcell K Peters, Mark Y Stoeckle and Johann-Wolfgang Wägele
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2010 7:26