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  1. Identification of DNA sequence diversity is a powerful means for assessing the species present in environmental samples. The most common molecular strategies for estimating taxonomic composition depend upon PC...

    Authors: Hege Vestheim and Simon N Jarman
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:12
  2. Eicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebr...

    Authors: Lars-Henrik Heckmann, Richard M Sibly, Martijn JTN Timmermans and Amanda Callaghan
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:11
  3. In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interac...

    Authors: Thorin L Geister, Matthias W Lorenz, Klaus H Hoffmann and Klaus Fischer
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:10
  4. In adult male Marcusenius pongolensis the duration of their Electric Organ Discharge (EOD) pulses increases with body size over lifetime (267 to 818 μs, field-measured). Spawning males have been observed to exhib...

    Authors: Susanne Hanika and Bernd Kramer
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:7
  5. The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete or...

    Authors: Boran Altincicek and Andreas Vilcinskas
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:6
  6. The development of specialized appendages involved in sperm transfer in the males of julid millipedes is an extreme case of specialized, complex structures differentiating in a very advanced phase of post-embr...

    Authors: Leandro Drago, Giuseppe Fusco and Alessandro Minelli
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:5
  7. The evolution of reproductive traits, such as hybrid incompatibility (postzygotic isolation) and species recognition (prezygotic isolation), have shown their key role in speciation. Theoretical modeling has re...

    Authors: Jasminca Behrmann-Godel and Gabriele Gerlach
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:3
  8. Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should ...

    Authors: Erhard Strohm, Johannes Kroiss, Gudrun Herzner, Claudia Laurien-Kehnen, Wilhelm Boland, Peter Schreier and Thomas Schmitt
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:2
  9. The standard textbook information that annelid musculature consists of oligochaete-like outer circular and inner longitudinal muscle-layers has recently been called into question by observations of a variety o...

    Authors: Annette Bergter, John L Brubacher and Achim Paululat
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2008 5:1
  10. Recent genome sequence analysis in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum indicated that this highly crepuscular animal encodes only two single opsin paralogs: a UV-opsin and a long wavelength (LW)-opsin; howev...

    Authors: Magdalena Jackowska, Riyue Bao, Zhenyi Liu, Elizabeth C McDonald, Tiffany A Cook and Markus Friedrich
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:24
  11. Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechani...

    Authors: Thomas Bachmann, Stephan Klän, Werner Baumgartner, Michael Klaas, Wolfgang Schröder and Hermann Wagner
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:23
  12. The retention of ancestral juvenile characters by adult stages of descendants is called paedomorphosis. However, this process can mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data, even in combination ...

    Authors: Torsten H Struck
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:22
  13. Marine cleaning interactions in which cleaner fish or shrimps remove parasites from visiting 'client' reef fish are a textbook example of mutualism. However, there is yet no conclusive evidence that cleaning o...

    Authors: Redouan Bshary, Rui F Oliveira, Tânia SF Oliveira and Adelino VM Canário
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:21
  14. Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine...

    Authors: Jochen BW Wolf, Diethard Tautz and Fritz Trillmich
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:20
  15. Understanding the demographic processes underlying population dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Populations decline if losses from the population (i.e., mortality and emigration) exceed gains (i.e., recr...

    Authors: Benedikt R Schmidt, Michael Schaub and Sebastian Steinfartz
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:19
  16. In simultaneous hermaphrodites with copulation and internal fertilization it is often unclear whether reciprocal sperm exchange results from the unconditional willingness of both partners to donate and receive...

    Authors: Valerie Schmitt, Nils Anthes and Nico K Michiels
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:17
  17. Vertebrate epithelial cells typically express a specific set of keratins. In teleosts, keratins are also present in a variety of mesenchymal cells, which usually express vimentin. Significantly, our previous s...

    Authors: Michael Schaffeld, Mark Haberkamp, Sonja Schätzlein, Sebastian Neumann and Christian Hunzinger
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:16
  18. The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is one of the least known cat species and depletion of their forested habitats puts it under heavy pressure. Recently reclassification of Bornean clouded leopards (N. nebul...

    Authors: Andreas Wilting, Valerie A Buckley-Beason, Heike Feldhaar, Jürgen Gadau, Stephen J O'Brien and K Eduard Linsenmair
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:15
  19. The Chaetognatha (arrow worms) are a group of marine carnivores whose phylogenetic relationships are still vigorously debated. Molecular studies have as yet failed to come up with a stable hypothesis on their ...

    Authors: Steffen Harzsch and Carsten HG Müller
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:14
  20. Unisexuality, or all female reproduction, is rare among vertebrates. Studying these exceptional organisms may give useful information with respect to the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. Poecilia...

    Authors: Susanne Schories, Kathrin P Lampert, Dunja K Lamatsch, Francisco J García de León and Manfred Schartl
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:13
  21. Hox genes are expressed in specific domains along the anterior posterior body axis and define the regional identity. In most animals these genes are organized in a single cluster in the genome and the order of...

    Authors: Evelyn E Schwager, Michael Schoppmeier, Matthias Pechmann and Wim GM Damen
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:10
  22. Flatworms are characterized by an outstanding stem cell system. These stem cells (neoblasts) can give rise to all cell types including germ cells and power the exceptional regenerative capacity of many flatwor...

    Authors: Daniela Pfister, Katrien De Mulder, Isabelle Philipp, Georg Kuales, Martina Hrouda, Paul Eichberger, Gaetan Borgonie, Volker Hartenstein and Peter Ladurner
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:9
  23. Social insects (ants, bees, wasps and termites) are considered as prime examples of altruism in which individuals (workers) forego their own reproduction to help other individuals reproduce. Such a behaviour i...

    Authors: Judith Korb
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:7
  24. The Radical Pair model proposes that magnetoreception is a light-dependent process. Under low monochromatic light from the short-wavelength part of the visual spectrum, migratory birds show orientation in thei...

    Authors: Roswitha Wiltschko, Katrin Stapput, Hans-Joachim Bischof and Wolfgang Wiltschko
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:5
  25. The lack of obvious morphological differences between species impedes the identification of species in many groups of organisms. Meanwhile, DNA-based approaches are increasingly used to survey biological diver...

    Authors: Frieder Mayer, Christian Dietz and Andreas Kiefer
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:4
  26. The preference – performance hypothesis predicts that oviposition preference of insects should correlate with host suitability for offspring development. Therefore, insect females have to be able to assess not...

    Authors: Sven Steiner, Daniel Erdmann, Johannes LM Steidle and Joachim Ruther
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:3
  27. The genus Mantella, endemic poison frogs of Madagascar with 16 described species, are known in the field of international pet trade and entered under the CITES control for the last four years. The phylogeny and p...

    Authors: Falitiana CE Rabemananjara, Ylenia Chiari, Olga Ravoahangimalala Ramilijaona and Miguel Vences
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2007 4:1
  28. Odors are represented by specific spatio-temporal activity patterns in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates and its insect analogue, the antennal lobe. In honeybees inhibitory circuits in the AL are involved in t...

    Authors: Silke Sachse, Philipp Peele, Ana F Silbering, Martin Gühmann and C Giovanni Galizia
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:22
  29. Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and es...

    Authors: Reinhard Lakes-Harlan and Johannes Strauß
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:20
  30. The question of arthropod head segmentation has become one of the central issues in Evolutionary Developmental Biology. The number of theories pertaining to head segments progressively enlarges, old concepts h...

    Authors: Carsten Wolff and Gerhard Scholtz
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:19
  31. Nests are built in various animal taxa including fish. In systems with exclusive male parental care, the choice of a nest site may be an important component of male fitness. The nest site may influence male at...

    Authors: Ricarda Modarressie and Theo CM Bakker
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:17
  32. To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clade...

    Authors: Carmel McDougall, Wei-Chung Chen, Sebastian M Shimeld and David EK Ferrier
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:16
  33. Geometric morphometric methods of capturing information about curves or outlines of organismal structures may be used in conjunction with canonical variates analysis (CVA) to assign specimens to groups or popu...

    Authors: H David Sheets, Kristen M Covino, Joanna M Panasiewicz and Sara R Morris
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:15
  34. Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although thi...

    Authors: Hermann Dreyer and Gerhard Steiner
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:13
  35. In many birds, day length (=photoperiod) regulates reproductive cycle. The photoperiodic environment varies between different seasons and latitudes. As a consequence, species at different latitudes may have ev...

    Authors: Amit K Trivedi, Sangeeta Rani and Vinod Kumar
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:12
  36. In eastern North America two common colour morphs exist in most populations of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Previous studies have indicated that the different morphs may be adapted to different therm...

    Authors: Erin E Petruzzi, Peter H Niewiarowski and Francisco B-G Moore
    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2006 3:10