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Fig. 5 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 5

From: Neuroendocrine patterns underlying seasonal song and year-round territoriality in male black redstarts

Fig. 5

Summary of the seasonal hormone concentration and mRNA expression in the preoptic area. Points and bars indicate mean ± SE. Testosterone, androgen receptor and aromatase expression were higher during breeding compared to the nonbreeding periods. Estrogen receptor expression did not differ across seasons. Non-vocal territorial behavior was similar across all three stages

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