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Table 1 Kinematic parameters of intraoral food processing of three morphotypes of I. alpestris

From: Ontogenetic plasticity in cranial morphology is associated with a change in the food processing behavior in Alpine newts

Kinematic variable Kinematic parameter Late-larval morphotype (LLM) Mid-metamorphic morphotype (MMM) Post-metamorphic morphotype (PMM)
Mean ± S.D. CV Mean ± S.D. CV Mean ± S.D. CV
Gape 1 Opening (°) 5.35 ± 1.54 0.29 9.82 ± 4.28 0.44 19.30 ± 5.90 0.24
2 Closure (°) 5.51 ± 1.21 0.22 9.48 ± 4.68 0.49 19.66 ± 5.86 0.23
3 Opening duration (s) 0.04 ± 0.02 0.45 0.13 ± 0.06 0.48 0.16 ± 0.06 0.32
4 Closure duration (s) 0.06 ± 0.02 0.36 0.11 ± 0.04 0.38 0.12 ± 0.06 0.44
5 Closure acceleration (10−3 deg/s2) 21.40 ± 6.15 0.29 12.25 ± 6.99 0.57 18.75 ± 10.47 0.45
6 Open-close duration (s) 0.10 ± 0.03 0.25 0.24 ± 0.07 0.27 0.28 ± 0.07 0.21
7 stationary duration (s) 0.17 ± 0.08 0.45 n/a n/a n/a n/a
8 Cycle duration (s) 0.28 ± 0.09 0.33 0.24 ± 0.07 0.27 0.28 ± 0.07 0.21
Vertical cranial flexion 9 Ventral (°) n/a n/a n/a n/a 12.61 ± 6.51 0.39
10 Dorsal (°) n/a n/a n/a n/a 12.30 ± 6.46 0.40
11 Ventral duration (s) n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.10 ± 0.05 0.41
12 Dorsal duration (s) n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.17 ± 0.07 0.33
13 Cycle duration (s) n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.28 ± 0.07 0.21
Vertical hyobranchial movement 14 Elevation (%-cl) 4.29 ± 1.99 0.46 4.93 ± 1.47 0.30 10.57 ± 6.18 0.53
15 Depression (%-cl) 3.87 ± 1.34 0.35 5.43 ± 1.50 0.28 12.46 ± 5.64 0.36
16 Elevation duration (s) 0.08 ± 0.02 0.24 0.14 ± 0.06 0.45 0.13 ± 0.05 0.34
17 Depression duration (s) 0.20 ± 0.09 0.44 0.10 ± 0.03 0.35 0.14 ± 0.05 0.31
18 Cycle duration (s) 0.28 ± 0.10 0.35 0.23 ± 0.07 0.28 0.27 ± 0.07 0.23
  1. Abbreviations: S.D. Standard deviation, CV Coefficient of variation and n/a not applicable. Note that parameters 6 and 8 are identical for both MMM and the PMM. This is because both MMM and PMM lack a stationary phase during processing (parameter 6), so that opening and closing the mouth corresponds to the gape cycle. Note the stereotypy of the magnitude of gape movements (parameter 1 and 2) in the LLM, the flexibility of the gape movements (parameter 1–4) in the MMM, the stereotypy of the hyobranchial movements (parameter 13,14, and 17) in the MMM, the stereotypy of the gape movements (parameter 1,2,3, and 5) in the PMM, and the flexibility of hyobranchial movements (parameter 13–15) in the PMM