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Table 1 Medians, interquartile ranges and statistical comparisons of running speed, vertical position and amplitude of the COM, lateral amplitude of the COM, amplitudes of pitch and yaw, mean values and amplitudes of the angle between thorax and abdomen and the means of the mass specific external mechanical energy (M COM ) as described in the methods section. The values for alternating tripodal (alt) and metachronal (met) runs on slippery (s) and non-slippery (ns) substrates were tested against each other via one-way ANOVA. The sample sizes (n) refer to the numbers of examined strides. Significant differences on the 5% level are indicated by black dots

From: Speed dependent phase shifts and gait changes in cockroaches running on substrates of different slipperiness

Parameter Slipperyness Pattern Median (Q25/Q75) Unit n Significance
       ns ns s s
       alt met alt met
running ns alt 0.12 (0.09/0.20) ms−1 62     
speed ns met 0.21 (0.17/0.24)   74  
  s alt 0.16 (0.13/0.19)   74     
  s met 0.18 (0.13/0.20)   69     
vertical ns alt 3.66 (3.36/4.11) mm 62     
position ns met 3.74 (3.44/4.04)   74     
  s alt 3.82 (3.38/4.22)   74     
  s met 3.65 (3.32/4.03)   69     
vertical ns alt 0.94 (0.54/1.31) mm 62    
peak-to-peak ns met 0.63 (0.37/0.80)   74    
amplitude s alt 1.02 (0.85/1.30)   74    
  s met 0.51 (0.36/1.02)   69    
lateral ns alt 1.55 (1.03/2.56) mm 62     
peak-to-peak ns met 1.73 (1.05/2.21)   74     
amplitude s alt 1.55 (1.17/2.23)   74     
  s met 1.42 (1.04/1.99)   69     
pitch ns alt 7.5 (4.6/10.1) ° 62    
peak-to-peak ns met 4.5 (3.1/7.0)   74    
amplitude s alt 5.9 (3.8/8.0)   74    
  s met 4.6 (2.6/7.2)   69    
yaw ns alt 8.0 (4.9/10.9) ° 62     
peak-to-peak ns met 6.8 (4.6/10.3)   74     
amplitude s alt 8.1 (5.5/10.6)   74     
  s met 8.0 (4.7/10.6)   69     
TA ns alt 172.0 (168.2/172.8) ° 62    
  ns met 167.1 (156.3/168.6)   74    
  s alt 168.0 (165.8/172.6)   74    
  s met 163.6 (159.3/165.5)   69    
TA ns alt 4.5 (3.1/6.5) ° 62     
peak-to-peak ns met 4.4 (2.8/5.8)   74     
amplitude s alt 4.7 (3.3/6.5)   74     
  s met 4.1 (3.1/5.3)   69     
M COM ns alt 1.86 (1.29/2.46) J·kg−1·m−1 62    
  ns met 1.47 (1.07/1.81)   74    
  s alt 1.82 (1.57/2.34)   74    
  s met 1.63 (1.13/2.01)   69