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Table 3 Selection of BLAST homologies found in Plectrohyla lip glands and their known functions in other animals. PS = P. sagorum, PM = P. matudai; **** ≥ 5000, ** ≥ 2500, ** ≥ 1000, * ≥ 500 (in parenthesis = expression level below 50 TPM)

From: Love bites: male frogs (Plectrohyla, Hylidae) use teeth scratching to deliver sodefrin precursor-like factors to females during amplexus

Protein homology Extract of known functions in other species Main location of expression in other taxa Expression level References
2D-TFPs (e.g. sodefrin precursor-like factor, phospholipase A2 inhibitor) Sex pheromones, toxins, cholinergic signalling, immune regulation,
Phospholipase inhibition
Sex glands; various organs PS****, PM**** [44, 45, 84]
Kazal-type inhibitors (Ovomucoid-like) Protease inhibitor (e.g. Trypsin), egg protein, possibly secretion protection Oviduct (liver) PS**, PM**** [85,86,87]
Ovostatin Protease inhibitor (e.g. Trypsin), egg protein, possibly secretion protection Oviduct PS**, PM** [86,87,88,89]
Vitelline membrane outer layer protein I (VMO-I) Egg membrane protein; ovomucin expression, antimicrobial barrier for eggs Oviduct PS**, PM*** [90, 91]
Fish-egg lectin Egg protein, antimicrobial Ovary (but also other organs) PS, PM [92]
Jeltraxin Egg protein, binds calcium (pot. Fertilization facilitation) Oviduct PS, PM* [93]
Avidin Egg protein, binds biotin (pot. Bacterial growth inhibition) Oviduct PS, PM [94]
Cysteine rich secretory proteins (CRISP-familiy; e.g. serotriflin-like protein, MGC108118 protein precursor) Involved in fertilization (sperm guidance), antimicrobial, venoms Uterus (some also other organs) PS***, PM** [87, 95,96,97,98]
Beta-microseminoprotein Seminal plasma protein, antibacterial, antifungal Prostate (but also other organs) PS*, PM* [99, 100]
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) Influence on reproductive behaviour, locomotor activity Hypothalamus PM (PS) [101,102,103]
Tachykinin Gut tissue contraction, defensive skin peptide, vasodilation, locomotor stimulation Various organs PM (PS) [104, 105]
Glucagon Blood sugar elevation, appetite regulation Pancreas (PM) [47, 57, 106, 107]
Nucleobindin 2 peptide (NUCB2) Fat metabolism regulation, appetite regulation Spleen, testis and stomach PS (PM) [108]
Resistin-like Peptide hormone derived from adipose tissue, insulin-antagonist Gastrointestinal tract PM [109]
Inactive pancreatic lipase-related protein 1 (PL-RP1) Inhibitor of dietary triglyceride digestion Pancreas PS, PM [110]