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Table 1 The quantitative ability of Asian freshwater turtles

From: Superior continuous quantity discrimination in a freshwater turtle

Pair Ratio Difference Individual level (binominal tests) Group level (Wilcoxon tests)
Correct/total trials
MS11 MS14 MS16 MS31 MS33 Median success rate
Experiment 1         
 1 vs. 3 0.33 2 84/101*** 79/100*** 77/102*** 80/100*** 77/100*** 0.79*
 2 vs. 4 0.50 2 72/100*** 68/100*** 63/100* 74/100*** 80/100*** 0.72*
 3 vs. 4 0.75 1 68/100*** 73/100*** 69/100*** 74/100*** 68/100*** 0.69*
 4 vs. 5 0.80 1 66/101** 67/100*** 71/101*** 64/100** 68/100*** 0.67*
 6 vs. 7 0.85 1 63/100* 64/100** 69/101*** 60/101 79/99*** 0.64*
Experiment 2 (Phase 1)
 1 vs. 5 0.20 4 7/10 9/10* 10/10** 9/10* 10/10** 0.9*
 1 vs. 4 0.25 3 7/10 10/10** 9/10* 9/10* 10/10** 0.9*
 1 vs. 3 0.33 2 4/10 10/10** 9/10* 8/10 9/10* 0.9
 2 vs. 5 0.40 3 8/10 10/10** 9/10* 7/10 7/10 0.8*
 1 vs. 2 0.50 1 8/10 8/10 9/10* 8/10 4/10 0.8
 2 vs. 4 0.50 2 7/10 8/10 8/10 5/10 8/10 0.8*
 3 vs. 5 0.60 2 6/10 9/10* 8/10 6/10 6/10 0.6*
 2 vs. 3 0.67 1 7/10 6/10 6/10 6/10 5/10 0.6*
 3 vs. 4 0.75 1 6/10 7/10 5/10 5/10 7/10 0.6
 4 vs. 5 0.80 1 6/10 5/10 5/10 7/10 8/10 0.6
Experiment 2 (Phase 2)
 2 vs. 10 0.20 8 9/10* 9/10* 10/10** 9/10* 9/10* 0.9*
 2 vs. 8 0.25 6 10/10** 10/10** 10/10** 7/10 10/10** 1.0*
 2 vs. 6 0.33 4 5/10 7/10 9/10 7/10 9/10* 0.7*
 3 vs. 9 0.33 6 9/10* 10/10** 6/10 7/10 9/10* 0.9*
 4 vs. 10 0.40 6 5/10 9/10* 9/10* 10/10** 9/10* 0.9*
 4 vs. 8 0.50 4 5/10 8/10 8/10 9/10* 8/10 0.8*
 6 vs. 10 0.60 4 7/10 9/10* 9/10* 6/10 6/10 0.7*
 4 vs. 6 0.67 2 6/10 8/10 5/10 7/10 6/10 0.6*
 6 vs. 9 0.67 3 6/10 7/10 6/10 9/10* 6/10 0.6*
 6 vs. 8 0.75 2 6/10 8/10 8/10 8/10 9/10* 0.8*
 8 vs. 10 0.80 2 7/10 8/10 8/10 9/10* 6/10 0.8*
Experiment 2 (Phase 3)
 2 vs. 9 0.22 7 9/10* 9/10* 10/10** 10/10** 7/10 0.9*
 3 vs. 8 0.38 5 6/10 10/10** 9/10* 10/10** 9/10* 0.9*
 4 vs. 9 0.44 5 10/10** 8/10 8/10 10/10** 9/10* 0.9*
 3 vs. 6 0.50 3 6/10 9/10* 10/10** 8/10 7/10 0.8*
 5 vs. 10 0.50 5 6/10 9/10* 9/10* 10/10** 8/10 0.9*
 4 vs. 7 0.57 3 9/10* 7/10 8/10 9/10* 8/10 0.8*
 7 vs. 10 0.70 3 6/10 6/10 8/10 7/10 10/10** 0.7*
 7 vs. 9 0.78 2 9/10* 6/10 10/10** 7/10 9/10* 0.9*
 6 vs. 7 0.86 1 8/10 6/10 6/10 6/10 9/10* 0.6*
 8 vs. 9 0.89 1 8/10 6/10 7/10 8/10 10/10** 0.8*
 9 vs. 10 0.90 1 6/10 8/10 8/10 8/10 8/10 0.8*
  1. At the individual level, the number of correct choices out of the total number of trials for a given quantitative pair was tested (binomial test) against random (50% correct); at the group level, the success rate (number of correct choices / total number of trials) for a given quantitative pair was tested (Wilcoxon tests) against the median success rate of 0.5. Experiment 1 is the fixed numerosity tests while Experiment 2 is the mixed numerosity tests. The identity of the turtle is indicated by subject ID: MS11, MS14, MS16, MS33 and MS 31. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05