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Table 1 Thorax modifications resulting from the lack of wing muscles in additional taxa from three ant subfamilies (Dorylinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae) and a female mutillid wasp (subfamily Mutillinae, tribe Smicromyrmini or Trogaspidiini) examined by micro-CT and SEM

From: The loss of flight in ant workers enabled an evolutionary redesign of the thorax for ground labour

Subfamily Species Fusion of external plates (SEM)? Angle of profurca platform? Origin of direct head muscle Idlm1? Indirect muscle Idvm5 enlarged? Origin of mid- & hindlegs trochanter muscles? Enlarged petiole muscles?
Formicinae Colobopsis truncata articulated pronotum and mesonotum more vertical mesonotum roof pronotum larger mesonotum roof entire propodeum roof
Dorylinae Dorylus wilverthi promesonotal fusion more vertical mesonotum roof pronotum larger mesonotum roof entire roof
Myrmicinae Carebara perpusilla promesonotal fusion more vertical absent a pronotum larger mesonotum roof entire roof
Myrmicinae Melissotarsus beccarii promesonotal fusion more vertical absent a extremely large mesonotum roof highly reduced a
Myrmicinae Messor barbarus promesonotal fusion more vertical mesonotum roof pronotum larger mesonotum roof entire roof
Myrmicinae Pheidole oculata promesonotal fusion more vertical mesonotum roof pronotum larger mesonotum roof entire roof
Mutillinae (Mutillidae) unidentified promesonotal fusion tilted back absentb no, smaller than petiole mesofurca for midlegs past midlegs only
  1. aassociated with miniaturisation
  2. blinked to hypognathy