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Table 1 The shells of 13 different mollusc species investigated in this study

From: Eumelanin and pheomelanin pigmentation in mollusc shells may be less common than expected: insights from mass spectrometry

Class Species Eumelanin Pheomelanin Previous reports of eumelanin
and methods used
Bivalvia C. gigas1 [30] UV and IR spectroscopy
Bivalvia L. ornata3
Bivalvia L. tigrina3
Bivalvia M. yessoensis3 [33] UV spectrophotometry and HPLC–UV
Bivalvia M. edulis2 +
Bivalvia P. maximus3
Cephalopoda N. pompilius4 +
Gastropoda C. nemoralis5 + + [7, 20] solubility tests
Gastropoda C. pharaonius6 ~ + * [21] HPLC–UV
Gastropoda C. marmoreus3
Gastropoda C. tigris3
Gastropoda H. asinina7
Gastropoda S. adriatica8 +
  1. A “+” signifies the presence of oxidation products of eumelanin or pheomelanin in our HPLC–MS analyses, a “- “signifies we could not detect any melanin oxidation products. 1purchased from food market (Vienna, March 2018), 2purchased from grocery store (Göttingen, March 2018), 3purchased from Conchology Inc. (, 4Donation from M. Hundertmark private collection, 5collected at botanical gardens of Georg-August University of Göttingen (September 2017), 6Donation from Natural History Museum Vienna (1 sample) and purchased from Schnecken und Muscheln ( (2 samples), 7Donation from D. J. Jackson private collection, 8collected from Jackson group aquarium (December 2017–March 2018). *Eumelanin was detected in one out of three samples