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Table 1 Brown bear plasma metabolite profiles

From: Metabolic reprogramming involving glycolysis in the hibernating brown bear skeletal muscle

  Summer Winter p-value N/season  
Plasma metabolite assays using enzymatic methods (kits)  
 Glucose (mM) 4.10 ± 0.83 5.90 ± 0.41 0.0913 6
 Free fatty acids (mM) 0.14 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.03 0.0003 7
 Lactate (mM) 8.59 ± 1.31 4.28 ± 0.95 0.0125 7  
 Glycerol (mM) 0.24 ± 0.04 0.20 ± 0.02 0.3944 25
 Triacylglycerols (mM) 2.85 ± 0.20 3.60 ± 0.31 0.0124 6
Plasma NMR-based analysis mean VIP
 Glucose (au) 1.00 ± 0.07 1.21 ± 0.05 0.0598 7 1.73
 Unidentified fatty acid (au) 1.00 ± 0.15 1.25 ± 0.15 0.3659 7 2.19
 Lactate (au) 1.00 ± 0.09 0.72 ± 0.08 0.0672 7 1.70
 Glycerol (au) 1.00 ± 0.04 0.78 ± 0.03 0.0059 7 1.05
 3-hydroxybutyrate (au) 1.00 ± 0.06 1.65 ± 0.10 0.0007 7 1.86
 Pyruvate (au) 1.00 ± 0.10 1.22 ± 0.10 0.2561 7 1.21
 Glycine/sarcosine (au) 1.00 ± 0.06 0.82 ± 0.04 0.0606 7 1.02
 Glutamine (au) 1.00 ± 0.06 1.19 ± 0.09 0.1768 7 1.02
 Myo-inositol (au) 1.00 ± 0.20 1.40 ± 0.24 0.2155 7 2.47
 Betaine (au) 1.00 ± 0.08 1.37 ± 0.13 0.0244 7 1.90
 Creatinine (au) 1.00 ± 0.06 1.51 ± 0.15 0.0126 7 1.38
Plasma liquid chromatography-based analysis of amino acids  
 Alanine (μM) 597.8 ± 55.1 441.1 ± 31.7 0.0234 8
 Glutamine (μM) 479.4 ± 54.0 631.1 ± 31.3 0.0356 8
  1. Data are the means ± SEM of indicated individual determinations in hibernating (winter; February) versus active (summer; June) brown bears (Ursus arctos). Significant differences between summer and winter (p-values < 0.05), are highlighted in bold