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Table 1 Homology hypotheses for muscles and glands and their formal descriptions, following the scheme adopted by [30]. Each morphological unit in the left-most column is inferred to be homologous among all four species but has spatial relations, connections and constituents as indicated under each species

From: Evolutionary transformation of mouthparts from particle-feeding to piercing carnivory in Viper copepods: Review and 3D analyses of a key innovation using advanced imaging techniques

Hypothetical homologues Category of descriptions Disseta palumbii Mesorhabdus gracilis Heterostylites longicornis Heterorhabdus subspinifrons
MUSCLES
 Esophageal Sphincters (esoS) Spatial relationships surround esophagus opening surround esophagus opening surround esophagus opening surround esophagus opening
Connections esophagus esophagus esophagus esophagus
 Forehead-Esophageal Dilator Muscles (for-eso.dM) Spatial relationships anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM2 anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM2 and 4 anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM2 anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM2
Connections esophagus, forehead esophagus, forehead esophagus, forehead esophagus, forehead
Constituents 4 pair of muscles several muscle bundles several muscle bundles several muscle bundles
 Labrum-Esophageal Dilator Muscles 1 (lab-eso.dM1) Spatial relationships anterior to esophagus, lateral to for-eso.dM anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lg1, lateral to for-eso.dM anterior to esophagus, lateral to for-eso.dM anterior to esophagus, lateral to lg3, lateral to for-eso.dM2
Connections esophagus, anterior esophagus, anterior esophagus, anterior esophagus, anterior
Constituents
 Labrum-Esophageal Dilator Muscles 2 (lab-eso.dM2) Spatial relationships anterior to esophagus, dorsal to u-l.labM4, ventral to for-eso.dM anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM4, dorsal to lg1, ventral to for-eso.dM anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM4, ventral to for-eso.dM anterior to esophagus, dorsal to lab-eso.dM4, medial to lg3, ventral to for-eso.dM
Connections esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM1 esophagus, anterior labrum esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM1 esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM1
 Labrum-Esophageal Dilator Muscles 3 (lab-eso.dM3) Spatial relationships antero-ventral to esophagus, lateral to u-l.labM2, between lg1 and lg3, ventral to lab-eso.dM2 antero-ventral to esophagus, lateral to u-l.labM2, between lg1, lg2 and lg3, ventral to lab-eso.dM2 antero-ventral to esophagus lateral to u-l.labM2, between lg1 and lg3, ventral to lab-eso.dM2
Connections esophagus, lateral labrum esophagus, lateral labrum esophagus, lateral labrum
 Labrum-Esophageal Dilator Muscles 4 (lab-eso.dM4) Spatial relationships antero-ventral to esophagus, ventral to lab-eso.dM2, dorsal to u-l.labM2 antero-ventral to esophagus, ventral to lab-eso.dM2, dorsal to u-l.labM2 antero-ventral to esophagus, ventral to lab-eso.dM2, dorsal to u-l.labM2 antero-ventral to esophagus, medial to lg3, ventral to lab-eso.dM2, dorsal to u-l.labM2
Connections esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM2 esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM 2 esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM2 esophagus, anterior labrum, u-l.labM2
 Lateral-Esophageal Dilator Muscles 1 (lat-eso.dM1) Spatial relationships antero-lateral to esophagus, lateral to for-eso.dM, dorsal to lab-eso.dM1 antero-lateral to esophagus, lateral to for-eso.dM, dorsal to lab-eso.dM1 antero-lateral to esophagus, lateral to for-eso.dM, dorsal to lab-eso.dM1 antero-lateral to esophagus, lateral to for-eso.dM, dorsal to lab-eso.dM1
Connections esophagus, antero-lateral body wall esophagus, antero-lateral body wall esophagus, antero-lateral body wall esophagus, antero-lateral body wall
 Lateral-Esophageal Dilator Muscles 2 (lat-eso.dM2) Spatial relationships lateral to esophagus lateral to esophagus, dorsal to lg2 lateral to esophagus ateral to esophagus, dorsal to lg1
Connections esophagus, antero-lateral body wall esophagus, antero-lateral body wall esophagus, antero-lateral body wall esophagus, antero-lateral body wall
 Paragnath Muscles (parM) Spatial relationships within paragnath within paragnath within paragnath within paragnath, antero-dorsal to lg1C1
Connections anterior paragnath anterior paragnath anterior paragnath anterior paragnath
Constituents 2 pair of muscles 2 pair of muscles 2 pair of muscles 2 pair of muscles
 Saggital Labral Muscles (s.labM) Spatial relationships anterior to posterior wall of labrum, medial to lg1C2, dorsal to lg3C2
Connections dorso-medial of the posterior wall of labrum, ventro-lateral of the posterior wall of labrum
 Transversus Labral Muscle (t.labM) Spatial relationships dorsal to lg3 and lg1, ventral to lab-eso.dM3, between bundles of u-l.labM2 dorsal to lg3 and lg1, ventral to lab-eso.dM3, between bundles of u-l.labM2 dorsal to lg3 and lg1, ventral to lab-eso.dM3, between bundles of u-l.labM2 dorsal to lg3 and lg1, ventral to lab-eso.dM3, between bundles of u-l.labM2
Connections cuticular ridge from dorsal labrum cuticular ridge from dorsal labrum cuticular ridge from dorsal labrum cuticular ridge from dorsal labrum
 Upper-Lower Labral Muscles 1 (u-l.labM1) Spatial relationships medial to u-l.labM2, medial to lab-eso.dM4 medial to u-l.labM2, medial to lab-eso.dM4, lateral to legC1 medial to u-l.labM2, medial to lab-eso.dM4 medial to u-l.labM2, medial to lab-eso.dM4, medial to lg3C2
Connections anterior-medial labrum, ventro-medial of dorsal labrum anterior-medial labrum, ventro-medial of dorsal labrum anterior-medial labrum, ventro-medial of dorsal labrum anterior-medial labrum, ventro-medial of dorsal labrum
 Upper-Lower Labral Muscles 2 (u-l.labM2) Spatial relationships lateral to u-l.labM1, medial to lg3 lateral to u-l.labM1, medial to lg3 lateral to u-l.labM1, medial to lg3 lateral to u-l.labM1, medial to lg3
Connections anterior labrum, posterior labrum anterior labrum, posterior labrum anterior labrum, posterior labrum anterior labrum, posterior labrum
GLANDS
 Labral Gland Type 1 (lg1) Spatial relationships medial to lb2, lateral to lb3, within labrum medial to lb2, lateral to lb3, lateral to lab-eso.dM3, within labrum dorsal to lb, lateral to lb3, lateral to lab-eso.dM3, within labrum medial to lb2, lateral to lb3, lateral to lab-eso.dM1 and 3, lateral to s.labM, within labrum and paragnath
Connections postero-lateral of labrum postero-lateral of labrum postero-lateral of labrum postero-lateral of labrum
Constituents lg1C1-4 lg1C1 and 2 lg1C1 and 2 lg1C1 and 2
 Labral Gland Type 2 (lg2) Spatial relationships ventro-lateral to lg1 lateral to lg1 ventro-lateral to lg1, ventral to lg3, surround lab-eso.dM3 lateral to lg1, lateral to s.labM
Connections postero-ventral edge of labrum postero-ventral edge of labrum postero-ventral edge of labrum postero-ventral edge of labrum
Constituents lg2G1C1-4, lg2G2C1 and 2, lg2G3C1-3 lg2G1C1 and 2, lg2G2C1 and 2 lg2G1C1 and 2, lg2G2C1 and 2 lg2C1-3
 Labral Gland Type 3 (lg3) Spatial relationships medial to lb1, lateral to u-l.labM2 medial to lb1, lateral to u-l.labM2 medial to lb1, lateral to u-l.labM2, medial to lab-eso.dM3 lateral to u-l.labM2, lateral to lab-eso.dM2 and 4, ventro-lateral to for-eso.dM, medial to lab-eso.dM1 and 3
Connections posterior labrum posterior labrum posterior labrum posterior labrum
Constituents lg3C1 and 2 lg3C1 and 2 lg3C1 and 2 lg3C1-3
 Labral Epidermal Glands (leg) Spatial relationships ventral to u-l.labM1 ventral to u-l.labM1 ventral to u-l.labM1, ventral to lg3
Connections antero-ventral labrum antero-ventral labrum antero-ventral labrum
Constituents leg1 and 2 leg1-8 leg1-3
 Paragnathal Epidermal Glands (peg) Spatial relationships lateral to parM, beside lateral wall of paragnath lateral to lg1C1, beside lateral wall of paragnath
Connections ventro-lateral paragnath postero-lateral paragnath
Constituents peg right 1-3, left 1-3 pegG1C1 and 2, pegG2C1 and 2