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Table 3 Measured friction performance of whole tree frogs (top) and of single limbs/toe pads (bottom; SP unless stated otherwise). For explanation of abbreviations see Table 2

From: Tree frog attachment: mechanisms, challenges, and perspectives

Reference Species Friction F Shear stress σ F ,L v Remarks
   [mN] [mN mm −2] [mN] [µm s–1]  
[40] various hylids 5.5–585.7 PMMA
[71] L. caerulea 285.4  ± 94.5 Glass
[6] O. septentrionalis 24.9  ± 6.6–55.4 ± 6.3 SL
   3.0–130.3 2.5 10–2500  
[10] R. pardalis 1.5 Glass
[25] L. caerulea 1.08–2.01 0.1 500 Glass
[39] R. dennysi 25.1–51.2 9.6 2 600 Varying detachment kinematics
[46] H. versicolor 357.1 Pulling experiment, Frontlimbs
[53] P. megacephalus 17.52 3 300 Glass
[80] T. resinifictrix 110–1270 Jumping kinematics, Wood; SL
[97] L. caerulea 7.8  ± 12.9 2 1000 Resin
   5.9  ± 2.6    PDMS
[113] L. caerulea 1.6–10.4 SL
[112] P. megacephalus 14.5–122.7 Repeated sliding
  1. F,L normal load, v sliding speed