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Table 3 The relationship between call F0 and the investigated (fixed) variables in the introduction, build-up, climax, and let-down

From: Trade-offs in the production of animal vocal sequences: insights from the structure of wild chimpanzee pant hoots

Introduction
 Independent variable Estimate ± SE χ 2 p value 95% confidence interval
 Number of calls 0.07±0.06 1.16 0.282 −0.06 to 0.23
 Call duration 0.06±0.12 0.28 0.595 −0.19 to 0.32
 Context 0.23±0.10 3.62 0.057 −0.01 to 0.47
 Age 0.18±0.37 0.21 0.647 −0.65 to 1.18
 Dominance rank 0.15±0.18 0.64 0.424 −0.27 to 0.58
Build-up
 Independent variable Estimate ± SE χ 2 p value 95% confidence interval
 Number of calls −0.06±0.04 2.60 0.106 −0.16 to 0.02
 Call duration −0.23±0.07 6.32 0.012 −0.38 to − 0.06
 Context −0.17±0.11 1.72 0.190 −0.45 to 0.12
 Age −0.04±0.10 0.18 0.672 −0.24 to 0.24
 Dominance rank 0.06±0.10 0.39 0.533 −0.23 to 0.27
Climax
 Independent variable Estimate ± SE χ 2 p value 95% confidence interval
 Number of calls 0.14±0.05 6.01 0.014 0.03 to 0.24
 Call duration 0.31±0.07 8.61 <0.001 0.15 to 0.46
 Context −0.38±0.13 7.53 0.006 −0.73 to −0.12
 Age 0.04±0.06 0.43 0.513 −0.09 to 0.31
 Dominance rank 0.04±0.13 0.09 0.758 −0.26 to 0.32
Let-down
 Independent variable Estimate ± SE χ 2 p value 95% confidence interval
 Number of calls 0.18±0.05 9.31 0.002 0.07 to 0.28
 Call duration 0.04±0.07 0.27 0.600 −0.12 to 0.19
 Context −0.28±0.12 5.45 0.019 −0.57 to −0.05
 Age −0.03±0.12 0.08 0.772 −0.35 to 0.23
 Dominance rank 0.02±0.06 0.12 0.726 −0.17 to 0.17
  1. Test variables are in bold. (LMM; dependent variable: fundamental frequency; random intercepts: pant hoot ID and caller ID)