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Fig. 3 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 3

From: Start early! Does social instability during the pre- and early postnatal development prepare male wild cavies for social challenge later in life?

Fig. 3

Plasma cortisol concentrations [ng/ml] directly before (basal value) and two hours after the introduction of SE- and UE-sons into the unfamiliar social groups (reaction value) and subsequently following on day 5, day 20, day 30 and day 40. SE-sons: Sons whose mothers had lived in a stable social environment during pregnancy and lactation; UE-sons: Sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation. Data are shown as means and standard error. Increase after two hours after the introduction of SE- and UE-sons in the unfamiliar social groups: GLMM, p = 0.001. Comparison of this increase between the two groups GLMM, p = 0.915. Comparison of the two groups on day 5, day 20, day 30 and day 40: GLMM, p = 0.043. All statistics were two-tailed, nSE-sons = 8–11, nUE-sons = 9–11

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