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Table 2 Means and ANOVA results for postural variables for the forelimbs and hind limb

From: Geckos decouple fore- and hind limb kinematics in response to changes in incline

  Mean ± s.e.m. Difference from level F-statistic (degrees of freedom) P-value
Level +10° +45° -45° -10°
Forelimb        
 LFF (m/SVL) 0.60 ± 0.016 0.02 ± 0.004 0.01 ± 0.007 -0.00 ± 0.011 0.01 ± 0.004 0.00 (1,7) 0.98
 LES (m/SVL) 0.28 ± 0.014 0.00 ± 0.008 -0.02 ± 0.008 0.01 ± 0.009 0.01 ± 0.010 1.78 (4,20) 0.18
 LMS (m/SVL) 0.39 ± 0.014 -0.00 ± 0.004 -0.00 ± 0.006 0.03 ± 0.009 0.00 ± 0.008 0.13 (2,18) 0.88
 Shoulder height FF (m/SVL) 0.18 ± 0.010 -0.01 ± 0.009 -0.01 ± 0.012 -0.03 ± 0.010 0.00 ± 0.009 1.27 (4,20) 0.32
 Shoulder height MS (m/SVL) 0.17 ± 0.009 -0.01 ± 0.004 -0.00 ± 0.009 -0.03 ± 0.009 -0.01 ± 0.008 2.34 (4,20) 0.09
 Shoulder height ES (m/SVL) 0.17 ± 0.009 -0.01 ± 0.007 -0.01 ± 0.010 -0.02 ± 0.009 -0.01 ± 0.010 0.46 (4,20) 0.77
 LAzimuth FF 107.11 ± 1.094 -4.29 ± 0.919 1.46 ± 0.841 -5.43 ± 0.690 -4.80 ± 1.419 0.65 (1,7) 0.44
 LAzimuth ES 160.41 ± 3.402 3.85 ± 3.228 2.31 ± 2.725 -12.33 ± 4.711 -3.83 ± 3.060 1.88 (4,20) 0.15
 LElevation FF 20.14 ± 0.222 -0.66 ± 0.666 0.31 ± 0.827 -5.31 ± 0.095 -0.68 ± 0.411 0.45 (1,7) 0.52
 LElevation ES 52.19 ± 2.060 0.05 ± 1.884 -7.17 ± 2.281 -17.61 ± 2.079a -2.88 ± 3.204 8.77 (4,20) <0.005
Hind limb        
 LFF (m/SVL) 0.29 ± 0.009 0.01 ± 0.007 -0.01 ± 0.006 0.04 ± 0.019 0.03 ± 0.010 3.11 (3,15) 0.06
 LES (m/SVL) 0.57 ± 0.013 0.02 ± 0.009 0.02 ± 0.006 -0.04 ± 0.012a 0.00 ± 0.011 4.76 (4,20) 0.007
 LMS (m/SVL) 0.39 ± 0.010 0.02 ± 0.012 0.02 ± 0.005 0.03 ± 0.011a 0.03 ± 0.010 3.22 (4,20) 0.03
 Hip height FF (m/SVL) 0.19 ± 0.010 0.00 ± 0.015 -0.01 ± 0.012 -0.04 ± 0.017 -0.03 ± 0.010 1.03 (4,20) 0.42
 Hip height MS (m/SVL) 0.17 ± 0.007 0.00 ± 0.013 -0.02 ± 0.009 -0.03 ± 0.013 -0.01 ± 0.008 0.94 (4,20) 0.46
 Hip height ES (m/SVL) 0.18 ± 0.007 0.01 ± 0.011 -0.01 ± 0.007 -0.03 ± 0.010 -0.02 ± 0.005 0.99 (4,20) 0.43
 LAzimuth FF 171.49 ± 1.943 12.27 ± 5.961 12.89 ± 3.296 30.33 ± 6.793a 4.08 ± 2.203 4.22 (3,15) 0.02
 LAzimuth ES 248.55 ± 2.038 -1.62 ± 1.838 -1.44 ± 2.178 -3.33 ± 4.073 -7.09 ± 1.918 0.78 (4,20) 0.55
 LElevation FF 45.01 ± 1.436 -0.95 ± 1.200 -7.84 ± 1.164a -14.50 ± 1.452a -9.98 ± 2.514 9.49 (3,15) <0.005
 LElevation ES 19.22 ± 0.719 -1.06 ± 1.008 -3.98 ± 0.964 -3.22 ± 0.964 -3.03 ± 0.567 2.15 (4,20) 0.11
  1. L is leg, FF denotes footfall, ES is end stance and MS is mid stance
  2. aDenotes significant differences from level