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Table 1 Means and ANOVA results for spatio-temporal variables for the forelimb and hind limb

From: Geckos decouple fore- and hind limb kinematics in response to changes in incline

  Mean ± s.e.m. Difference from level F-statistic (degrees of freedom) P-value
Level +10° +45° -45° -10°
Velocity (ms-1) 0.57 ± 0.067 0.03 ± 0.061 -0.02 ± 0.052 0.12 ± 0.057 -0.05 ± 0.031 - -
Velocity (ms-1/sqrt(ms-2aSVL)) 0.67 ± 0.055 0.02 ± 0.059 -0.01 ± 0.053 0.13 ± 0.065 -0.06 ± 0.029 1.50 (4,20) 0.24
Forelimb        
 Tstance (s) 0.08 ± 0.008 -0.01 ± 0.008 0.00 ± 0.010 -0.02 ± 0.008 0.01 ± 0.007 1.54 (4,20) 0.23
 Tswing (s) 0.06 ± 0.003 0.00 ± 0.002 0.00 ± 0.004 -0.03 ± 0.003a 0.00 ± 0.004 9.61 (4,20) <0.005
 Tstride (s) 0.14 ± 0.010 -0.01 ± 0.010 0.00 ± 0.011 -0.05 ± 0.010a 0.01 ± 0.009 3.61 (4,20) 0.02
 DF 0.56 ± 0.024 -0.02 ± 0.020 0.00 ± 0.030 0.07 ± 0.025 0.01 ± 0.016 1.13 (4,20) 0.37
 Stride Freq (Hz) 7.76 ± 0.592 0.07 ± 0.56 0.03 ± 0.588 4.16 ± 0.977a -0.42 ± 0.415 5.45 (4,20) <0.005
 Step Length (m/SVL) 0.58 ± 0.009 -0.01 ± 0.007 -0.05 ± 0.009 -0.10 ± 0.002 -0.00 ± 0.007 1.13 (4,20) 0.31
 Stride Length (m/SVL) 0.91 ± 0.015 0.00 ± 0.022 -0.08 ± 0.009 -0.17 ± 0.014 0.14 ± 0.047 0.76 (4,20) 0.40
Hind limb        
 Tstance (s) 0.09 ± 0.008 -0.00 ± 0.014 0.02 ± 0.013 -0.01 ± 0.015 0.02 ± 0.007 1.30 (4,20) 0.30
 Tswing (s) 0.05 ± 0.003 0.00 ± 0.002 -0.00 ± 0.003 -0.01 ± 0.003a 0.00 ± 0.003 4.56 (4,20) 0.008
 Tstride (s) 0.14 ± 0.009 -0.00 ± 0.015 0.02 ± 0.015 -0.03 ± 0.018 0.02 ± 0.006 1.85 (4,20) 0.16
 DF 0.62 ± 0.022 -0.01 ± 0.038 0.04 ± 0.021 0.02 ± 0.033 0.04 ± 0.025 0.48 (4,20) 0.75
 Stride Freq (Hz) 7.51 ± 0.521 -0.17 ± 0.797 -0.44 ± 0.708 2.36 ± 1.264 -1.18 ± 0.358 2.75 (4,20) 0.06
 Step Length (m/SVL) 0.61 ± 0.018 -0.03 ± 0.024 -0.05 ± 0.009 -0.16 ± 0.023a -0.05 ± 0.009 8.21 (4,20) <0.005
 Stride Length (m/SVL) 0.99 ± 0.046 -0.06 ± 0.053 -0.10 ± 0.035 -0.25 ± 0.020a -0.12 ± 0.041 4.36 (4,20) 0.02
  1. T is time, DF is duty factor and SVL is snout-vent length
  2. aDenotes significant differences from level