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Table 1 The results of a GZLM model testing the effect of population, photoperiod and topical application treatment on a) fecundity and b) burrowing propensity of L. decemlineata from three European populations

From: Is a change in juvenile hormone sensitivity involved in range expansion in an invasive beetle?

Effect Wald χ 2 df p
a) Fecundity    
 Intercept 17055.096 1 <0.001
 Weight (covariate) 1066.804 1 <0.001
 Population 5661.370 2 <0.001
 Treatment 3047.121 2 <0.001
 Photoperiod 3215.546 1 <0.001
 Population*Treatment 1328.258 4 <0.001
 Population*Photoperiod 352.201 2 <0.001
 Treatment*Photoperiod 113.182 2 <0.001
 Population*Treatment*Photoperiod 429.080 4 <0.001
b) Burrowing propensity    
 Intercept 9.270 1 0.002
 Population 27.335 2 <0.001
 Treatment 10.086 2 0.006
 Photoperiod 132.962 1 <0.001
 Population*Treatment 1.480 4 0.830
 Population*Photoperiod 4.611 2 0.100
 Photoperiod*Treatment 0.877 2 0.645
  1. In a) the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value of the full model was: 40105.951. Removal of factors and interactions did not improve the model. In b) a model containing all four factors and all interactions had an AIC value of 165.469. Removing sex led to a significant improvement (AIC: 97.530) while in the final model the interaction between Population*Photoperiod*Treatment was also removed (AIC: 93.125). Since the main hypothesis was to test the population*treatment interaction, the two-way interaction effects were left in the final model