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Table 1 Values (mean ± SD) of oral and nasal call variables and repeated measures ANOVA results for their comparison

From: The power of oral and nasal calls to discriminate individual mothers and offspring in red deer, Cervus elaphus

Call variable Hinds (n = 28) Calves (n = 31)
  Oral calls Nasal calls ANOVA Oral calls Nasal calls ANOVA
durat (s) 0.759 ± 0.235 0.791 ± 0.253 F 1,27 = 0.69, p = 0.414 0.264 ± 0.080 0.230 ± 0.039 F 1,30 = 9.79, p = 0.004
dur-to-max (s) 0.230 ± 0.098 0.308 ± 0.138 F 1,27 = 10.90, p = 0.003 0.311 ± 0.078 0.300 ± 0.133 F 1,30 = 0.16, p = 0.696
f0beg (Hz) 137 ± 33 128 ± 29 F 1,27 = 7.40, p = 0.011 773 ± 113 695 ± 122 F 1,30 = 22.97, p < 0.001
f0end (Hz) 89 ± 19 89 ± 16 F 1,27 = 0.15, p = 0.700 518 ± 96 481 ± 58 F 1,30 = 4.80, p = 0.036
f0max (Hz) 180 ± 31 173 ± 32 F 1,27 = 3.02, p = 0.094 875 ± 99 781 ± 103 F 1,30 = 64.49, p < 0.001
f0min (Hz) 95 ± 18 93 ± 14 F 1,27 = 1.11, p = 0.301 554 ± 93 512 ± 76 F 1,30 = 9.06, p = 0.005
f0mean (Hz) 153 ± 25 148 ± 24 F 1,27 = 3.46, p = 0.074 778 ± 87 694 ± 79 F 1,30 = 57.39, p < 0.001
∆f0 (Hz) 85 ± 26 80 ± 29 F 1,27 = 1.49, p = 0.233 321 ± 77 269 ± 92 F 1,30 = 13.24, p = 0.001
fpeak (Hz) 1418 ± 555 1060 ± 568 F 1,27 = 12.82, p = 0.001 2973 ± 684 2289 ± 948 F 1,30 = 19.39, p < 0.001
q25 (Hz) 952 ± 285 713 ± 250 F 1,27 = 24,50, p < 0.001 1681 ± 506 1163 ± 387 F 1,30 = 28.66, p < 0.001
q50 (Hz) 1731 ± 255 1632 ± 257 F 1,27 = 3.03; p = 0.093 2987 ± 384 2488 ± 515 F 1,30 = 30.89; p < 0.001
q75 (Hz) 2471 ± 252 2534 ± 261 F 1,27 = 1.20, p = 0.283 3730 ± 238 3564 ± 395 F 1,30 = 7.10, p = 0.012
power-f0 (dB) 13.90 ± 5.76 5.38 ± 4.10 F 1,27 = 55.15, p < 0.001 10.49 ± 5.67 6.90 ± 6.98 F 1,30 = 8.14, p = 0.008
peak-harm 8.2 ± 3.3 6.1 ± 3.1 F 1,27 = 10.66, p = 0.003 3.5 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.3 F 1,30 = 4.65, p = 0.039
  1. Designations: durat – call duration; dur-to-max – the duration from call onset to the point of the maximum fundamental frequency; f0beg – the fundamental frequency at the onset of a call; f0end – the fundamental frequency at the end of a call; f0max – the maximum fundamental frequency of a call; f0min – the minimum fundamental frequency of a call; f0mean – the average fundamental frequency of a call; ∆f0 – the depth of frequency modulation, calculated as the difference between f0max and f0 min; fpeak – the frequency of maximum amplitude within a call; q25, q50, q75 – the lower, medium and upper quartiles of a call; power-f0 – the relative power of the f0 band compared to the peak frequency band; peak-harm – the order number of the harmonic with the maximum energy. Significant differences are highlighted in bold.