Distribution for Mantophasmatodea in Southern Africa (modified from []). The numbered sample spots refer to populations that were analyzed using peptidomics . South African Austrophasmatidae taxa for which the mtDNA sequences were analyzed by ) have been collected within the same distributional range in the Western and Northern Cape provinces, except for the populations of Austrophasmatidae marked with white circles (see ). The circles marked with an X refer to populations that were recently collected and are not yet included in the phylogenetic studies. The large circles represent areas where several taxa co-occur (genus level). Whereas the respective taxa from Brandberg (N 39, greenish Pachyphasma; N38 grey brownish Tyrannophasma), and Clanwilliam (S21, greenish Viridiphasma; S20, grey brownish Karoophasma) inhabit different microhabitats, different taxa in the Gamsberg area (N31, greenish Mantophasma; N32, greenish Striatophasma) were occasionally identified in the same bushes. The Richtersveld (arrowhead), which is part of the most northern extension of the winter rainfall region in South Africa, is inhabited by at least four distantly related taxa (Praedatophasma, Namaquaphasma, and two additional undescribed taxa) and, thus, shows exceptionally high diversity at the genus level. A presumptive Praedatophasma population has been reported from the Fish River catchment area (asterisk), which is approximately 100 km north of the established range (H. Vollbrecht, EduVentures Windhoek; pers. comm.). Red circles, Mantophasma; green circles, Striatophasma; blue circles, Austrophasmatidae sensu ); grey circles, Tyrannophasma/Praedatophasma; yellow, Pachyphasma; light blue/light green, undescribed taxa from Richtersveld.