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Table 1 Seabird families, sorted by increasing parasite prevalence

From: Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

Family (no. species) species studied species infected Mean prevalence (no. studies) Plasmodium Haemoproteus Leucozytozoon Hepatozoon Babesia
Pelecanoididae (4) 1 (25%) 0 0 (N = 1) - - - - -
Phaethontidae (3) 3 (100%) 0 0 (N = 7) - - - - -
Pelecanidae (8) 1 (13%) 0 0 (N = 2) - - - - -
Stercorariidae (7) 5 (71%) 0 0 (N = 8) - - - - -
Alcidae (22) 3 (14%) 0 0 (N = 4) - - - - -
Procellariidae (72) 16 (22%) 2 (12%) 0.1% (N = 28) P. sp. (2) - - - -
Phalacrocoracidae (32) 8 (25%) 1 (12%) 1.3% (N = 13) - - L. vanden-brandeni (1) - -
Hydrobatidae (20) 4 (20%) 1 (25%) 3.3% (N = 6) - - - H. sp. (1) -
Spheniscidae (19) 19 (100%) 6 (32%) 14.4% (N = 64) P. relictum (5), P. sp. (1) - L. tawaki (2) - B. peircei (2)
Sulidae (10) 6 (60%) 2 (33%) 7.1% (N = 12) - H. sp. (1) - - B. poelea (2),
B. sp. (1)
Diomedeidae (14) 7 (50%) 4 (57%) 7.8% (N = 14) - - - H. albatrossi (4) -
Lariidae (92) 36 (18%) 7 (59%) 9.2% (N = 59) P. sp. (1) H. larae (5),
H. passeris (1), H. sp. (4)
- - B. bennetti (1)
Fregatidae (5) 4 (80%) 4 (100%) 27.7% (N = 7) - H. iwa (3),
H. sp. (1)
- - -
All seabirds (453) 113 (25%) 31 (27%) 8.4% (N = 224) ≥ 1 spp. ≥ 3 spp. 1 spp. ≥ 1 spp. ≥ 3 spp.
  1. Species infected as percentage of species studied. No data were found for sheathbills Chionididae (2 species) and skimmers Rynchopidae (3 species). For details and sources, see Table S1 in Additional file 1.