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Table 1 Landmark description.

From: Functional morphology and integration of corvid skulls – a 3D geometric morphometric approach

Number Description
bill 86 Landmarks and semilandmarks
1 bill-tip
2 L, R maximum of curvature at the rostral end of the external nares
3 most caudal point of the ossified palatine
4 L, R bifurcation of the Os palatinum and the Os maxillare close to the rim of the Os maxillare
5 L, R maximum of curvature at the caudal end of the external nares
6 L, R maximum of curvature at the rostral end of the Fossa et Fenestra antorbitalis
7 L, R maximum of curvature at the lateral intersection of the Processus maxillaris and the Os jugale
8 mid-point of the cranio-facial hinge
9 L, R most posterior point of the Angulus caudolatum (Os palatinum)
cranium 66 Landmarks and semilandmarks
10 L, R most dorso-lateral point of the Os lacrimale
11 L, R most medial point (maximum of curvature) of the Os lacrimale
12 L, R most ventro-lateral point of the Os lacrimale
13 most ventro-rostral point of the Os mesethmoidale
14 L, R most distal point of the Processus postorbitalis
15 L, R most distal point of the Processus zygomaticus
16 most caudal point of the Condylus occipitalis
17 L, R Ostium canalis ophthalmici externi
18 most dorsal point of the Foramen magnum
  1. Descriptions of landmarks [59] that were digitized on two blocks: bill and cranium; either placed on the midsagittale or on the left and right (L, R)