Male genital system of Pholcus phalangioides in subadult stage 2 (about two weeks before final molt). (a-b): Drawings of the palpal organ from medial (a) and lateral (b) view to characterize the age of the observed males. (c): Longitudinal section of the male genital system. Note the different staining of cells compared with Fig. 2c resulting from a higher secretory activity (see Fig. 3e). (d): Longitudinal section of the vas deferens. The voluminous proximal part is completely filled with spermatozoa and secretion. Towards the distal part, the lumen becomes narrow but is also filled with seminal fluid (arrows). (e): Section of the testis. Between the cysts the narrow lumen contains homogenous secretion characterized by the blue-green color. Sg, silk gland; Sp, spermatids; Te, testis; Vd, vas deferens.