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Table 7 Axial analysis of alignment during urination in all females (pooled data and mean vectors of particular dogs sorted into three categories according to the relative changes of magnetic field declination)

From: Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field

  Pooled raw data Means per dog (n ≥ 5)
Declination rate 0% 0.1-2% >2% 0% 0.1-2% >2%
Number of observations 603 396 703 27 20 29
Mean vector (μ) 5°/185° 2°/182° 11°/191° 0°/180° 7°/187° 23°/203°
Length of mean vector (r) 0.208 0.131 0.068 0.434 0.159 0.134
Circular standard deviation 51° 58° 66° 37° 55° 57°
95% Conf. interval (-/+) for μ 357°-12° 347°-17° 349°-33° 163°-196° 312°-63° 328°-78°
99% Conf. interval (-/+) for μ 354°-15° 342°-22° 342°-40° 157°-201° 294°-80° 311°-95°
Rayleigh test (Z) 26.146 6.839 3.251 5.085 0.503 0.52
Rayleigh test (p) 4.4110-12 0.001 0.039 0.005 0.61 0.598
Rao’s spacing test (U) 312.836 330 339.004 156.975 135.002 129.554
Rao’s spacing test (p) <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 >0.05 >0.1 >0.5