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Table 1 Results of GLMMs investigating the behavioural responses of elephant family groups to playbacks of contact calls that varied in social affiliation (experiment 1) and social dominance (experiment 2)

From: Effects of social disruption in elephants persist decades after culling

A) Experiment 1: Amboseli National Park Pilanesberg National Park
Dependent variable Parameter Estimate s.e. Z-value p -value Estimate s.e. Z-value p -value
Defensive bunching Alien vs. familiar 1.476 0.579 2.548 0.01 0.471 0.703 0.670 0.50
  Unfamiliar vs. familiar 1.092 0.678 1.610 0.11 −0.525 0.682 −0.770 0.44
Bunching intensity Alien vs. familiar 0.620 0.319 1.942 0.05 −0.042 0.341 −0.123 0.90
  Unfamiliar vs. familiar 0.406 0.373 1.088 0.28 −0.394 0.374 −1.053 0.29
Prolonged listening Alien vs. familiar 1.322 0.635 2.080 0.04 −0.428 0.711 −0.602 0.55
  Unfamiliar vs. familiar 0.783 0.737 1.062 0.29 0.080 0.684 0.118 0.91
Investigative smelling Alien vs. familiar 0.062 0.557 0.111 0.91 −0.868 0.727 −1.194 0.23
  Unfamiliar vs. familiar 0.506 0.683 0.740 0.46 −0.750 0.706 −1.062 0.29
B) Experiment 2: Amboseli National Park Pilanesberg National Park
Dependent variable Parameter Estimate s.e. Z-value p -value Estimate s.e. Z-value p -value
Defensive bunching Age of caller 0.066 0.019 3.444 <0.001 0.0002 0.021 0.011 0.99
Bunching intensity Age of caller 0.023 0.008 3.026 0.002 0.002 0.009 0.238 0.81
Prolonged listening Age of caller 0.037 0.018 2.073 0.04 0.017 0.020 0.827 0.41
Investigative smelling Age of caller 0.040 0.017 2.390 0.02 −0.032 0.021 −1.537 0.12
  1. For experiment 1, the social affiliation parameter was categorical and the model generated results for the alien and unfamiliar playbacks using the familiar category as a reference. See also Additional file 3: Table S2 & Table S3.