The maternal rescue of pups from a cup and the pups’ responses. (A) The pups’ postural responses during the task. The transparent plastic cup is outlined by dashed lines. The hindlimb was extended at PND 8 and flexed at PND 14 (red circles). (B) A proportion of the pups escaped from the cup in various manners: maternal rescue (black), both contributed (pup climbed up on the edge of the cup and the mother pulled the pup out; dark grey), the pup escaped by itself with a maternal attempt to grasp the pup (light grey), the pup escaped by itself with the mother in close attendance (white), the pup escaped by itself while the mother was away (stripe). n ≥ 24 for each age.