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Table 1 Dataset used for comparative analyses, including wet body mass (M b ), flight muscle ratio (FMR), wing loading (WL), dietary specialization (pollen/nectar or animal protein) and food manipulation ability (0 = unable to manipulate food load, 1 = able to manipulate food load)

From: Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera

Taxonomy Species Species used in the phylogenetic reconstruction Diet Food manipulation ability Mb(g) FMR WL (g/cm2) Source
Apoidea: Apidae Amegilla dawsoni Amegilla asserta Pollen 1 0.700 - 0.31 [21]
Apoidea: Apidae Anthophora sp. Anthophora montana Pollen 1 0.133 0.396 0.183 This study
Apoidea: Apidae Apis mellifera Apis mellifera Pollen 1 0.094 0.358 0.170 This study
Apoidea: Apidae Bombus impatiens Bombus diversus Pollen 1 0.201 0.261 0.287 [22]
Apoidea: Apidae Bombus sp. 1 Bombus ardens Pollen 1 0.208 0.374 0.220 This study
Apoidea: Apidae Bombus sp. 2 Bombus mendax Pollen 1 0.204 0.401 0.199 This study
Apoidea: Apidae Xylocopa varipuncta Xylocopa pubescens Pollen 1 0.838 0.342 0.331 [23]
Apoidea: Megachilidae Anthidium manicatum Anthidium porterae Pollen 1 0.154 0.344 0.205 This study
Apoidea: Megachilidae Megachile rotundata Megachile pugnata Pollen 1 0.102 0.32 0.178 This study
Apoidea: Megachilidae Osmia rufa Osmia lignaria Pollen 1 0.187 0.353 0.223 This study
Apoidea: Sphecidae Ammophila sabulosa Ammophila sp. JC134 Prey 0 0.026 0.409 0.075 This study
Apoidea: Sphecidae Sceliphron curvatum Sceliphron caementarium Prey 0 0.083 0.46 0.094 This study
Apoidea: Sphecidae Sceliphron destillatorium Sceliphron laetum Prey 0 0.181 0.44 0.124 This study
Apoidea: Sphecidae Sphex rufocinctus Sphex lucae Prey 0 0.118 0.426 0.109 This study
Apoidea: Crabronidae Bembix olivacea Bembix americana Prey 0 0.109 0.46 0.122 This study
Apoidea: Crabronidae Bembix sinuata Bembix dentilabris Prey 0 0.158 0.456 0.195 This study
Apoidea: Crabronidae Bembix troglodytes Bembix amoena Prey 0 0.099 0.36 - [24]
Apoidea: Crabronidae Oxybelus sp. Oxybelus abdominalis Prey 0 0.008 0.374 0.087 This study
Apoidea: Crabronidae Philanthus pulchellus Philanthus gibbosus Prey 0 0.043 0.392 0.08 This study
Apoidea: Crabronidae Philanthus triangulum Philanthus sp. CSM-2006 Prey 0 0.092 0.401 0.116 This study
Vespoidea: Vespidae Polistes dominulus Polistes metricus Prey 1 0.065 0.369 0.085 This study
Vespoidea: Vespidae Vespula germanica Vespula germanica Prey 1 0.067 0.361 - [20]
Vespoidea: Vespidae Vespula maculifrons Vespula maculifrons Prey 1 0.038 0.381 - [20]
Vespoidea: Vespidae Vespula vulgaris Vespula squamosa Prey 1 0.078 0.344 0.139 This study
Vespoidea: Vespidae Eumenes sp. 1 Eumenes fraternus Prey 0 0.048 0.403 0.078 This study
Vespoidea: Vespidae Eumenes sp. 2 Eumenes tripunctatus Prey 0 0.042 0.375 0.098 This study
Vespoidea: Vespidae Euodynerus sp. Euodynerus megaera Prey 0 0.049 0.363 0.067 This study
Vespoidea: Vespidae Monobia quandridens Monobia quandridens Prey 0 0.218 0.385 - [25]