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  1. Monitoring large carnivores is a central issue in conservation biology. The wolf (Canis lupus) is the most studied large carnivore in the world. After a massive decline and several local extinctions, mostly due t...

    Authors: Daniela Passilongo, Luca Mattioli, Elena Bassi, László Szabó and Marco Apollonio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:22

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  2. Adult birds clean the nest by consuming or transporting feces, which is thought to be important in order to lower the levels of parasites, pathogens and predation at the nest. If nestlings were to defecate whe...

    Authors: Rui-chang Quan, Huan Li, Bo Wang and Eben Goodale

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:21

    Content type: Research

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  3. It has been suggested that rapid range expansion could proceed through evolution in the endocrinological machinery controlling life-history switches. Based on this we tested whether the Colorado potato beetle, Le...

    Authors: Philipp Lehmann, Anne Lyytinen, Saija Piiroinen and Leena Lindström

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:20

    Content type: Research

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  4. Many, if not all, questions in biology and psychology today were formulated and considered in depth, though typically in a different language, from the 1700's to the early 1900's. However, because of politics ...

    Authors: David Crews, Seth A Weisberg and Sahotra Sarkar

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S21

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  5. In this article, we refer to an original opinion paper written by Prof. Frank Beach in 1950 (“The Snark was a Boojum”). In his manuscript, Beach explicitly criticised the field of comparative psychology becaus...

    Authors: Simone Macrì and S Helene Richter

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  6. Domestication is an evolutionary process during which the biobehavioural profile (comprising e.g. social and emotional behaviour, cognitive abilities, as well as hormonal stress responses) is substantially res...

    Authors: Sylvia Kaiser, Michael B Hennessy and Norbert Sachser

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S19

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  7. In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the ...

    Authors: Michael B Hennessy, Sylvia Kaiser, Tobias Tiedtke and Norbert Sachser

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S18

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  8. With each trajectory taken during the ontogeny of an individual, the number of optional behavioural phenotypes that can be expressed across its life span is reduced. The initial range of phenotypic plasticity ...

    Authors: Vera Brust, Philipp M Schindler and Lars Lewejohann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S17

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  9. The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across speci...

    Authors: Ronald G Oldfield, Rayna M Harris and Hans A Hofmann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  10. Comprehensive explanations of behavioral adaptations rarely invoke all levels famously admonished by Niko Tinbergen. The role of developmental processes and plasticity, in particular, has often been neglected....

    Authors: Peter M Kappeler and Claudia Fichtel

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S15

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  11. Early experiences influence the developing organism, with lifelong and potentially adaptive consequences. It has recently become clear that the effects of early experiences are not limited to the exposed gener...

    Authors: Erin L Kinnally and John P Capitanio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S14

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  12. Prenatal conditions influence offspring development in many species. In mammals, the effects of social density have traditionally been considered a detrimental form of maternal stress. Now their potential adap...

    Authors: Nikolaus von Engelhardt, Gabriele J Kowalski and Anja Guenther

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  13. The development of ethologically meaningful test paradigms in young animals is an essential step in the study of the ontogeny of animal personality. Here we explore the possibility to integrate offspring separ...

    Authors: Robyn Hudson, Marylin Rangassamy, Amor Saldaña, Oxána Bánszegi and Heiko G Rödel

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  14. An individual's fitness in part depends on the characteristics of the mate so that sexually attractive ornaments, as signals of quality, are used in mate choice. Often such ornaments develop already early in l...

    Authors: E Tobias Krause and Marc Naguib

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  15. Variation in early nutrition is known to play an important role in shaping the behavioural development of individuals. Parental prey selection may have long-lasting behavioural influences. In birds foraging on...

    Authors: Kees van Oers, Gregory M Kohn, Camilla A Hinde and Marc Naguib

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  16. A crucial assumption of animal personality research is that behaviour is consistent over time, showing a high repeatability within individuals. This assumption is often made, sometimes tested using short time ...

    Authors: Yvonne Wuerz and Oliver Krüger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  17. Introduction: Behavioural traits can differ considerably between individuals, and such differences were found to be consistent over the lifetime of an organism in several species. Whether behavioural traits of...

    Authors: Thorben Müller and Caroline Müller

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  18. Behavior of wild vertebrate individuals can vary in response to environmental or social factors. Such within-individual behavioral variation is often mediated by hormonal mechanisms. Hormones also serve as a b...

    Authors: Michaela Hau and Wolfgang Goymann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  19. There is increasing attention for integrating mechanistic and functional approaches to the study of (behavioural) development. As environments are mostly unstable, it is now often assumed that genetic parental...

    Authors: Ton G G Groothuis and Barbara Taborsky

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  20. Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows—periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other ...

    Authors: Tim W Fawcett and Willem E Frankenhuis

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  21. Behaviors are highly plastic and one aspect of this plasticity is behavioral changes over age. The presence of age-related plasticity in behavior opens up the possibility of between-individual variation in age...

    Authors: Jon E Brommer and Barbara Class

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  22. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of carbon dioxide. CAs are present as six structurally divergent enzyme families: α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ...

    Authors: Leo Syrjänen, Susanna Valanne, Marianne Kuuslahti, Tea Tuomela, Ashwin Sriram, Alberto Sanz, Howard T. Jacobs, Mika Rämet and Seppo Parkkila

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. ‘Motion dazzle’ refers to the hypothesis that high contrast patterns such as stripes and zigzags may have evolved in a wide range of animals as they make it difficult to judge the trajectory of an animal in mo...

    Authors: Anna E. Hughes, Richard S. Magor-Elliott and Martin Stevens

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:17

    Content type: Research

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  24. Predator-induced defences are a prominent example of phenotypic plasticity found from single-celled organisms to vertebrates. The water flea Daphnia pulex is a very convenient ecological genomic model for studyin...

    Authors: Andrey Rozenberg, Mrutyunjaya Parida, Florian Leese, Linda C. Weiss, Ralph Tollrian and J. Robert Manak

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:18

    Content type: Research

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  25. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of nervous systems requires an understanding of their architecture and development across diverse taxa. The spiralians encompass diverse body plans and organ systems, an...

    Authors: Néva P Meyer, Allan Carrillo-Baltodano, Richard E Moore and Elaine C Seaver

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:15

    Content type: Research

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  26. RNA interference (RNAi) of trait-specific genes permits the manipulation of specific phenotypic traits (“phenotypic engineering”) and thus represents a powerful tool to test trait function in evolutionary stud...

    Authors: Roberto Arbore, Kiyono Sekii, Christian Beisel, Peter Ladurner, Eugene Berezikov and Lukas Schärer

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:14

    Content type: Research

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  27. The ‘scaly-foot gastropod’ (Chrysomallon squamiferum Chen et al., 2015) from deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems of the Indian Ocean is an active mobile gastropod occurring in locally high densities, and it is ...

    Authors: Chong Chen, Jonathan T. Copley, Katrin Linse, Alex D. Rogers and Julia D. Sigwart

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The wider availability of non-destructive and high-resolution methods, such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), has prompted its use in anatomical and morphometric studies. Yet, because of the actual scan...

    Authors: Monique Nouailhetas Simon and Gabriel Marroig

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:12

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  29. Elucidating the relationship between habitat characteristics and population parameters is critical for effective conservation. Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are often used in wildlife management and c...

    Authors: Bianca Unglaub, Sebastian Steinfartz, Axel Drechsler and Benedikt R Schmidt

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. An important goal for understanding how animals have evolved is to reconstruct the ancestral features and evolution of the nervous system. Many inferences about nervous system evolution are weak because of spa...

    Authors: Eduardo E Zattara and Alexandra E Bely

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. The Antarctic Ocean hosts a rich and diverse fauna despite inhospitable temperatures close to freezing, which require specialist adaptations to sustain animal activity and various underlying body functions. Wh...

    Authors: Michael Oellermann, Bernhard Lieb, Hans-O Pörtner, Jayson M Semmens and Felix C Mark

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:6

    Content type: Research

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  32. Species of the order Primates are highly gregarious with most species living in permanent heterosexual social groups. According to theory in socioecology maximum social group size is limited by rates of intra-...

    Authors: Peng-Fei Fan, Thad Q Bartlett, Han-Lan Fei, Chang-Yong Ma and Wen Zhang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:5

    Content type: Research

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  33. Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the...

    Authors: Michaela Hau, Mark F Haussmann, Timothy J Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, James S Adelman, Ana Catarina Miranda and Jesko Partecke

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:4

    Content type: Research

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  34. Spiders are important arthropod predators in many terrestrial ecosystems, and molecular tools have boosted our ability to investigate this taxon, which can be difficult to study with conventional methods. None...

    Authors: Daniela Sint, Isabella Thurner, Ruediger Kaufmann and Michael Traugott

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:3

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  35. In most species, acoustical cues are crucial for mother-offspring recognition. Studies of a few species of ungulates showed that potential for individual recognition may differ between nasal and oral contact c...

    Authors: Olga V Sibiryakova, Ilya A Volodin, Vera A Matrosova, Elena V Volodina, Andrés J Garcia, Laureano Gallego and Tomás Landete-Castillejos

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:2

    Content type: Research

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  36. Calanus finmarchicus, a highly abundant copepod that is an important primary consumer in North Atlantic ecosystems, has a flexible life history in which copepods in the last juvenile developmental stage (fifth co...

    Authors: Ann M Tarrant, Mark F Baumgartner, Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Dag Altin, Trond Nordtug and Anders J Olsen

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Exposure to elevated seawater PCO2 limits the thermal tolerance of crustaceans but the underlying mechanisms have not been comprehensively explored. Larval stages of crustaceans are even more sensitive to environ...

    Authors: Melanie Schiffer, Lars Harms, Magnus Lucassen, Felix Christopher Mark, Hans-Otto Pörtner and Daniela Storch

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:87

    Content type: Research

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  38. Individual recognition and winner/loser effects both play important roles in animal contests, but how their influences are integrated to affect an individual’s contest decisions in combination remains unclear....

    Authors: Cheng-Yu Li, Yusan Yang, Pey-Yi Lee and Yuying Hsu

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:92

    Content type: Research

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  39. The shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus is a wood-boring bivalve with an unusual vermiform body. Although its larvae are brooded, they retain the general appearance of a typical bivalve veliger-type larva. Here, we des...

    Authors: Andrea Wurzinger-Mayer, J Reuben Shipway, Alen Kristof, Thomas Schwaha, Simon M Cragg and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:90

    Content type: Research

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  40. Comparatively few data are available concerning the structure of the adult nervous system in the Ectoprocta or Bryozoa. In contrast to all other ectoprocts, the cerebral ganglion of phylactolaemates contains a...

    Authors: Anna V Weber, Andreas Wanninger and Thomas F Schwaha

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2014 11:89

    Content type: Research

    Published on: