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  1. As increasingly fragmented and isolated populations of threatened species become subjected to climate change, invasive species and other stressors, there is an urgent need to consider adaptive potential when m...

    Authors: Andrew R. Weeks, Jakub Stoklosa and Ary A. Hoffmann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:31

    Content type: Research

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  2. Morphological characters of birds reflect their adaptive evolution and ecological requirements and are also relevant to phylogenetic relationships within a group of related species. The tits (Paridae) are know...

    Authors: Shimiao Shao, Qing Quan, Tianlong Cai, Gang Song, Yanhua Qu and Fumin Lei

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:30

    Content type: Research

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  3. The flight patterns of albatrosses and shearwaters have become a touchstone for much of Lévy flight research, spawning an extensive field of enquiry. There is now compelling evidence that the flight patterns o...

    Authors: Andrew M. Reynolds, Vitor H. Paiva, Jacopo G. Cecere and Stefano Focardi

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:29

    Content type: Research

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  4. Bitter taste perception is essential for species with selective food intake, enabling them to avoid unpalatable or toxic items. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of TAS2R genes among various...

    Authors: Zhijin Liu, Guangjian Liu, Frank Hailer, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, Xinxin Tan, Jundong Tian, Zhongze Yan, Baowei Zhang and Ming Li

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:28

    Content type: Research

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  5. The swimming activity of sea urchin larvae is dependent on the ciliary band (CB) on the larval surface and is regulated by several neurotransmitters, including serotonin (5HT), dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric aci...

    Authors: Hideki Katow, Tomoko Katow, Hiromi Yoshida, Masato Kiyomoto and Isao Uemura

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:27

    Content type: Research

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  6. Innovative new techniques that aid in the visualization of microscopic anatomical structures have improved our understanding of organismal biology significantly. It is often challenging to observe internal 3D ...

    Authors: Yongying Ruan, Dan Dan, Mengna Zhang, Ming Bai, Ming Lei, Baoli Yao and Xingke Yang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:26

    Content type: Research

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  7. Through the actions of one or more isoforms of the enzyme 5α-reductase in many male reproductive tissues, circulating testosterone (T) undergoes metabolic conversion into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which bi...

    Authors: Matthew J. Fuxjager, Eric R. Schuppe, John Hoang, Jennifer Chew, Mital Shah and Barney A. Schlinger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:25

    Content type: Research

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  8. Species-specific strategies for financing the costs of reproduction are well understood, forming a continuum ranging from high to low reliance on stored nutrients. Animals relying mostly on stored reserves are...

    Authors: Kim Jaatinen, Markus Öst and Keith A. Hobson

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:24

    Content type: Research

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  9. An external skeleton is an essential part of the body plan of many animals and is thought to be one of the key factors that enabled the great expansion in animal diversity and disparity during the Cambrian exp...

    Authors: Kevin M. Kocot, Felipe Aguilera, Carmel McDougall, Daniel J. Jackson and Bernard M. Degnan

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:23

    Content type: Review

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  10. The expression of animal personality is indicated by patterns of consistency in individual behaviour. Often, the differences exhibited between individuals are consistent across situations. However, between som...

    Authors: Kyriacos Kareklas, Gareth Arnott, Robert W. Elwood and Richard A. Holland

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:22

    Content type: Research

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  11. Male-male competition and female mating preference are major mechanisms of sexual selection, which influences individual fitness. How male-male competition affects female preference, however, remains poorly un...

    Authors: Saori Yokoi, Satoshi Ansai, Masato Kinoshita, Kiyoshi Naruse, Yasuhiro Kamei, Larry J. Young, Teruhiro Okuyama and Hideaki Takeuchi

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:21

    Content type: Research

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  12. The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. How...

    Authors: Jente Ottenburghs, Pim van Hooft, Sipke E. van Wieren, Ronald C. Ydenberg and Herbert H. T. Prins

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:20

    Content type: Review

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  13. Brittle stars regenerate their whole arms post-amputation. Amphiura filiformis can now be used for molecular characterization of arm regeneration due to the availability of transcriptomic data. Previous work show...

    Authors: Anna Czarkwiani, Cinzia Ferrario, David Viktor Dylus, Michela Sugni and Paola Oliveri

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:18

    Content type: Research

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  14. Rapid habitat loss and degradation are responsible for population decline in a growing number of species. Understanding the natural history of these species is important for designing conservation strategies, ...

    Authors: Amrita Srivathsan, Andie Ang, Alfried P. Vogler and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:17

    Content type: Research

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  15. Traditional theory assumes that egg recognition and rejection abilities arise as a response against interspecific brood parasitism (IBP). However, rejection also appears in some species that are currently not ...

    Authors: Francisco Ruiz-Raya, Manuel Soler, Gianluca Roncalli, Teresa Abaurrea and Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:16

    Content type: Research

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  16. The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly invasive species now with an almost cosmopolitan distribution. Two other damaging, polyphagous and closely-related sp...

    Authors: Christopher W. Weldon, Leigh Boardman, Danica Marlin and John S. Terblanche

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:15

    Content type: Research

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  17. The study of morphology is experiencing a renaissance due to rapid improvements in technologies for 3D visualization of complex internal and external structures. But 3D visualization of the internal structure ...

    Authors: Tomonari Kaji, Keiichi Kakui, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata and A. Richard Palmer

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:14

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. Wrasses represent the second largest family of marine fishes and display a high diversity of complex colours linked to ecological functions. Recently, red autofluorescent body colouration has been reported in ...

    Authors: Tobias Gerlach, Jennifer Theobald, Nathan S. Hart, Shaun P. Collin and Nico K. Michiels

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:13

    Content type: Research

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  19. White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated bat populations in North America, with millions of bats dead. WNS is associated with physiological changes in hibernating bats, leading to increased arousals from hiber...

    Authors: Thomas Mikael Lilley, Joseph Samuel Johnson, Lasse Ruokolainen, Elisabeth Jeannine Rogers, Cali Ann Wilson, Spencer Mead Schell, Kenneth Alan Field and DeeAnn Marie Reeder

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:12

    Content type: Research

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  20. Titi monkeys, Callicebus, comprise the most species-rich primate genus—34 species are currently recognised, five of them described since 2005. The lack of molecular data for titi monkeys has meant that little is ...

    Authors: Hazel Byrne, Anthony B. Rylands, Jeferson C. Carneiro, Jessica W. Lynch Alfaro, Fabricio Bertuol, Maria N. F. da Silva, Mariluce Messias, Colin P. Groves, Russell A. Mittermeier, Izeni Farias, Tomas Hrbek, Horacio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio and Jean P. Boubli

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:10

    Content type: Research

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  21. Do evolutionary specializations lead to evolutionary constraint? This appears plausible, particularly when specialization leads to loss of complex adaptations. In the owl monkey lineage, nocturnality clearly a...

    Authors: N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, A. L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Dávalos and B. J. Bradley

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:9

    Content type: Research

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  22. The functional design of skeletal muscles is shaped by conflicting selective pressures between support and propulsion, which becomes even more important as animals get larger. If larger animals were geometrica...

    Authors: Taylor J. M. Dick and Christofer J. Clemente

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:8

    Content type: Research

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  23. Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an inte...

    Authors: A. L. Evans, N. J. Singh, A. Friebe, J. M. Arnemo, T. G. Laske, O. Fröbert, J. E. Swenson and S. Blanc

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:7

    Content type: Research

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  24. Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of ...

    Authors: Wen Bo Liao, Yi Luo, Shang Ling Lou, Di Lu and Robert Jehle

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:6

    Content type: Research

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  25. Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. Little is known about their general morphology, in particular the nervous...

    Authors: Nadezhda N. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Alen Kristof, Vladimir V. Malakhov and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:5

    Content type: Research

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  26. Reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species are produced during normal unstressed metabolic activity in aerobic tissues. Most analytical work uses tissue homogenates, and lacks spatial information on the ...

    Authors: Georgina A. Rivera-Ingraham, Iara Rocchetta, Ulf Bickmeyer, Stefanie Meyer and Doris Abele

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:4

    Content type: Research

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  27. Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures...

    Authors: Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Francisco Ruiz-Raya, Laura Rodríguez and Manuel Soler

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:3

    Content type: Research

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  28. Ascidians can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts, yet these communities remain unexamined for the majority of host ascidians and little is known about host-symbiont interactions.

    Authors: Susanna López-Legentil, Xavier Turon and Patrick M. Erwin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:2

    Content type: Research

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  29. Environmental stressors increase the secretion of glucocorticoids that in turn can shorten telomeres via oxidative damage. Modification of telomere length, as a result of adversity faced early in life, can mod...

    Authors: Verónica Quirici, Claudia Jimena Guerrero, Jesse S. Krause, John C. Wingfield and Rodrigo A. Vásquez

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:1

    Content type: Research

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  30. Studying species with disjunct distributions allows biogeographers to evaluate factors controlling species ranges, limits on gene flow, and allopatric speciation. Here, we use phylogeographic and population ge...

    Authors: Sergio Marchant, Amy L. Moran and Peter B. Marko

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:39

    Content type: Research

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  31. Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and...

    Authors: Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Kristina Noreikiene and Juha Merilä

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:38

    Content type: Research

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  32. Body size variation has played a central role in biogeographical research, however, most studies have aimed to describe trends rather than search for underlying mechanisms. In order to provide a more comprehen...

    Authors: Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Andrew A. Cunningham and Claudio Soto-Azat

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:37

    Content type: Research

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  33. The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Diphyllobothriidea) is one of the most fascinating cestode parasites because it may cause parasitic castration of its second intermediate host, teleost freshwater fishes, due to ...

    Authors: Aneta Yoneva, Tomáš Scholz, Daniel Młocicki and Roman Kuchta

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:35

    Content type: Research

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  34. Myogenesis is currently investigated in a number of invertebrate taxa using combined techniques, including fluorescence labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D imaging, in order to understand anatomical and func...

    Authors: Jorge A. Audino, José Eduardo A. R. Marian, Alen Kristof and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:34

    Content type: Research

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  35. Here we present an application of advanced registration and atlas building framework DRAMMS to the automated annotation of mouse mandibles through a series of tests using single and multi-atlas segmentation pa...

    Authors: Ryan Young and A. Murat Maga

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:33

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. Chemical cues and pheromones guide decisions in organisms throughout the animal kingdom. The neurobiology, function, and evolution of olfaction are particularly well described in insects, and resulting concept...

    Authors: Tyler J. Buchinger, Michael J. Siefkes, Barbara S. Zielinski, Cory O. Brant and Weiming Li

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:32

    Content type: Review

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  37. The astonishing spectrum of scarabaeine lifestyles makes them an attractive group for studies in entomology and evolutionary biology. As a result of adaptions to specific food substrates and textures, the mout...

    Authors: Ming Bai, Sha Li, Yuanyuan Lu, Haidong Yang, Yijie Tong and Xingke Yang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:30

    Content type: Research

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  38. Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are und...

    Authors: Konrad Stolz, Christoph-Rüdiger von Bredow, Yvette M. von Bredow, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan, Tina E. Trenczek and Johannes Strauß

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:29

    Content type: Research

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  39. Though some elements of the bryozoan nervous system were discovered 180 years ago, few studies of their neuromorphology have been undertaken since that time. As a result the general picture of the bryozoan ner...

    Authors: Ksenia V. Shunkina, Olga V. Zaytseva, Viktor V. Starunov and Andrew N. Ostrovsky

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:28

    Content type: Research

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  40. Immunosenescence (deteriorating immune function at old age) affects humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about immunosenescence in natural populations despite its potential importance for populat...

    Authors: Anni Hämäläinen, Brigitte Raharivololona, Pascaline Ravoniarimbinina and Cornelia Kraus

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:25

    Content type: Research

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  41. Invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) from terrestrial haematophagous leeches has recently been proposed as a powerful non-invasive tool with which to detect vertebrate species and thus to survey their populations. ...

    Authors: Ida Bærholm Schnell, Rahel Sollmann, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Mark E. Siddall, Douglas W. Yu, Andreas Wilting and M. Thomas. P. Gilbert

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:24

    Content type: Review

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  42. Monitoring large carnivores is a central issue in conservation biology. The wolf (Canis lupus) is the most studied large carnivore in the world. After a massive decline and several local extinctions, mostly due t...

    Authors: Daniela Passilongo, Luca Mattioli, Elena Bassi, László Szabó and Marco Apollonio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:22

    Content type: Methodology

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  43. Adult birds clean the nest by consuming or transporting feces, which is thought to be important in order to lower the levels of parasites, pathogens and predation at the nest. If nestlings were to defecate whe...

    Authors: Rui-chang Quan, Huan Li, Bo Wang and Eben Goodale

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:21

    Content type: Research

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