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  1. Titi monkeys, Callicebus, comprise the most species-rich primate genus—34 species are currently recognised, five of them described since 2005. The lack of molecular data for titi monkeys has meant that little is ...

    Authors: Hazel Byrne, Anthony B. Rylands, Jeferson C. Carneiro, Jessica W. Lynch Alfaro, Fabricio Bertuol, Maria N. F. da Silva, Mariluce Messias, Colin P. Groves, Russell A. Mittermeier, Izeni Farias, Tomas Hrbek, Horacio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio and Jean P. Boubli

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Do evolutionary specializations lead to evolutionary constraint? This appears plausible, particularly when specialization leads to loss of complex adaptations. In the owl monkey lineage, nocturnality clearly a...

    Authors: N. I. Mundy, N. C. Morningstar, A. L. Baden, E. Fernandez-Duque, V. M. Dávalos and B. J. Bradley

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. The functional design of skeletal muscles is shaped by conflicting selective pressures between support and propulsion, which becomes even more important as animals get larger. If larger animals were geometrica...

    Authors: Taylor J. M. Dick and Christofer J. Clemente

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:8

    Content type: Research

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  4. Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an inte...

    Authors: A. L. Evans, N. J. Singh, A. Friebe, J. M. Arnemo, T. G. Laske, O. Fröbert, J. E. Swenson and S. Blanc

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of ...

    Authors: Wen Bo Liao, Yi Luo, Shang Ling Lou, Di Lu and Robert Jehle

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. Little is known about their general morphology, in particular the nervous...

    Authors: Nadezhda N. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Alen Kristof, Vladimir V. Malakhov and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:5

    Content type: Research

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  7. Reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species are produced during normal unstressed metabolic activity in aerobic tissues. Most analytical work uses tissue homogenates, and lacks spatial information on the ...

    Authors: Georgina A. Rivera-Ingraham, Iara Rocchetta, Ulf Bickmeyer, Stefanie Meyer and Doris Abele

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures...

    Authors: Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Francisco Ruiz-Raya, Laura Rodríguez and Manuel Soler

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:3

    Content type: Research

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  9. Ascidians can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts, yet these communities remain unexamined for the majority of host ascidians and little is known about host-symbiont interactions.

    Authors: Susanna López-Legentil, Xavier Turon and Patrick M. Erwin

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:2

    Content type: Research

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  10. Environmental stressors increase the secretion of glucocorticoids that in turn can shorten telomeres via oxidative damage. Modification of telomere length, as a result of adversity faced early in life, can mod...

    Authors: Verónica Quirici, Claudia Jimena Guerrero, Jesse S. Krause, John C. Wingfield and Rodrigo A. Vásquez

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2016 13:1

    Content type: Research

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  11. Studying species with disjunct distributions allows biogeographers to evaluate factors controlling species ranges, limits on gene flow, and allopatric speciation. Here, we use phylogeographic and population ge...

    Authors: Sergio Marchant, Amy L. Moran and Peter B. Marko

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:39

    Content type: Research

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  12. Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and...

    Authors: Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Kristina Noreikiene and Juha Merilä

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Body size variation has played a central role in biogeographical research, however, most studies have aimed to describe trends rather than search for underlying mechanisms. In order to provide a more comprehen...

    Authors: Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Andrew A. Cunningham and Claudio Soto-Azat

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:37

    Content type: Research

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  14. The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Diphyllobothriidea) is one of the most fascinating cestode parasites because it may cause parasitic castration of its second intermediate host, teleost freshwater fishes, due to ...

    Authors: Aneta Yoneva, Tomáš Scholz, Daniel Młocicki and Roman Kuchta

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:35

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Myogenesis is currently investigated in a number of invertebrate taxa using combined techniques, including fluorescence labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D imaging, in order to understand anatomical and func...

    Authors: Jorge A. Audino, José Eduardo A. R. Marian, Alen Kristof and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:34

    Content type: Research

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  16. Here we present an application of advanced registration and atlas building framework DRAMMS to the automated annotation of mouse mandibles through a series of tests using single and multi-atlas segmentation pa...

    Authors: Ryan Young and A. Murat Maga

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:33

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  17. Chemical cues and pheromones guide decisions in organisms throughout the animal kingdom. The neurobiology, function, and evolution of olfaction are particularly well described in insects, and resulting concept...

    Authors: Tyler J. Buchinger, Michael J. Siefkes, Barbara S. Zielinski, Cory O. Brant and Weiming Li

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:32

    Content type: Review

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  18. The astonishing spectrum of scarabaeine lifestyles makes them an attractive group for studies in entomology and evolutionary biology. As a result of adaptions to specific food substrates and textures, the mout...

    Authors: Ming Bai, Sha Li, Yuanyuan Lu, Haidong Yang, Yijie Tong and Xingke Yang

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:30

    Content type: Research

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  19. Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are und...

    Authors: Konrad Stolz, Christoph-Rüdiger von Bredow, Yvette M. von Bredow, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan, Tina E. Trenczek and Johannes Strauß

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Though some elements of the bryozoan nervous system were discovered 180 years ago, few studies of their neuromorphology have been undertaken since that time. As a result the general picture of the bryozoan ner...

    Authors: Ksenia V. Shunkina, Olga V. Zaytseva, Viktor V. Starunov and Andrew N. Ostrovsky

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Immunosenescence (deteriorating immune function at old age) affects humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about immunosenescence in natural populations despite its potential importance for populat...

    Authors: Anni Hämäläinen, Brigitte Raharivololona, Pascaline Ravoniarimbinina and Cornelia Kraus

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) from terrestrial haematophagous leeches has recently been proposed as a powerful non-invasive tool with which to detect vertebrate species and thus to survey their populations. ...

    Authors: Ida Bærholm Schnell, Rahel Sollmann, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Mark E. Siddall, Douglas W. Yu, Andreas Wilting and M. Thomas. P. Gilbert

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:24

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. Monitoring large carnivores is a central issue in conservation biology. The wolf (Canis lupus) is the most studied large carnivore in the world. After a massive decline and several local extinctions, mostly due t...

    Authors: Daniela Passilongo, Luca Mattioli, Elena Bassi, László Szabó and Marco Apollonio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:22

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  24. Adult birds clean the nest by consuming or transporting feces, which is thought to be important in order to lower the levels of parasites, pathogens and predation at the nest. If nestlings were to defecate whe...

    Authors: Rui-chang Quan, Huan Li, Bo Wang and Eben Goodale

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. It has been suggested that rapid range expansion could proceed through evolution in the endocrinological machinery controlling life-history switches. Based on this we tested whether the Colorado potato beetle, Le...

    Authors: Philipp Lehmann, Anne Lyytinen, Saija Piiroinen and Leena Lindström

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Many, if not all, questions in biology and psychology today were formulated and considered in depth, though typically in a different language, from the 1700's to the early 1900's. However, because of politics ...

    Authors: David Crews, Seth A Weisberg and Sahotra Sarkar

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S21

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  27. In this article, we refer to an original opinion paper written by Prof. Frank Beach in 1950 (“The Snark was a Boojum”). In his manuscript, Beach explicitly criticised the field of comparative psychology becaus...

    Authors: Simone Macrì and S Helene Richter

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  28. Domestication is an evolutionary process during which the biobehavioural profile (comprising e.g. social and emotional behaviour, cognitive abilities, as well as hormonal stress responses) is substantially res...

    Authors: Sylvia Kaiser, Michael B Hennessy and Norbert Sachser

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S19

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  29. In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the ...

    Authors: Michael B Hennessy, Sylvia Kaiser, Tobias Tiedtke and Norbert Sachser

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S18

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  30. With each trajectory taken during the ontogeny of an individual, the number of optional behavioural phenotypes that can be expressed across its life span is reduced. The initial range of phenotypic plasticity ...

    Authors: Vera Brust, Philipp M Schindler and Lars Lewejohann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S17

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  31. The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across speci...

    Authors: Ronald G Oldfield, Rayna M Harris and Hans A Hofmann

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  32. Comprehensive explanations of behavioral adaptations rarely invoke all levels famously admonished by Niko Tinbergen. The role of developmental processes and plasticity, in particular, has often been neglected....

    Authors: Peter M Kappeler and Claudia Fichtel

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S15

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  33. Early experiences influence the developing organism, with lifelong and potentially adaptive consequences. It has recently become clear that the effects of early experiences are not limited to the exposed gener...

    Authors: Erin L Kinnally and John P Capitanio

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S14

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  34. Prenatal conditions influence offspring development in many species. In mammals, the effects of social density have traditionally been considered a detrimental form of maternal stress. Now their potential adap...

    Authors: Nikolaus von Engelhardt, Gabriele J Kowalski and Anja Guenther

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  35. The development of ethologically meaningful test paradigms in young animals is an essential step in the study of the ontogeny of animal personality. Here we explore the possibility to integrate offspring separ...

    Authors: Robyn Hudson, Marylin Rangassamy, Amor Saldaña, Oxána Bánszegi and Heiko G Rödel

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  36. An individual's fitness in part depends on the characteristics of the mate so that sexually attractive ornaments, as signals of quality, are used in mate choice. Often such ornaments develop already early in l...

    Authors: E Tobias Krause and Marc Naguib

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  37. Variation in early nutrition is known to play an important role in shaping the behavioural development of individuals. Parental prey selection may have long-lasting behavioural influences. In birds foraging on...

    Authors: Kees van Oers, Gregory M Kohn, Camilla A Hinde and Marc Naguib

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  38. A crucial assumption of animal personality research is that behaviour is consistent over time, showing a high repeatability within individuals. This assumption is often made, sometimes tested using short time ...

    Authors: Yvonne Wuerz and Oliver Krüger

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  39. Introduction: Behavioural traits can differ considerably between individuals, and such differences were found to be consistent over the lifetime of an organism in several species. Whether behavioural traits of...

    Authors: Thorben Müller and Caroline Müller

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  40. There is increasing attention for integrating mechanistic and functional approaches to the study of (behavioural) development. As environments are mostly unstable, it is now often assumed that genetic parental...

    Authors: Ton G G Groothuis and Barbara Taborsky

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  41. Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows—periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other ...

    Authors: Tim W Fawcett and Willem E Frankenhuis

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1

  42. Behaviors are highly plastic and one aspect of this plasticity is behavioral changes over age. The presence of age-related plasticity in behavior opens up the possibility of between-individual variation in age...

    Authors: Jon E Brommer and Barbara Class

    Citation: Frontiers in Zoology 2015 12(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 12 Supplement 1