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Table 1 Volatile profiles of Silverstoneia punctiventris using HS-SPME/GC-MS. IUPAC nomenclature or amphibian alkaloid name are presented, in addition to chemical class/subclass following Classyfire taxonomy or alkaloid family according to Daly et al. database [10], respectively. The retention time in minutes and peak area of each compound has also been specified for each replicate

From: First characterization of toxic alkaloids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cryptic dendrobatid Silverstoneia punctiventris

Compound Class/subclass
Alkaloid family
Rt (min) Replicate BF
1 2 3 4
3-methylpentane Alkanes 2.27 705,879   1,124,419   nd
3-methylbutan-1-ol Alcohols and polyols 4.47 372,701 314,028 1,120,769 924,992 D 2
hexanal Carbonyl compounds 6.05 214,369 319,896 360,387 235,433 D 2
2,4,6-trimethylpyridine Methylpyridines 11.52 1,075,816 742,879 514,956 1,386,495 nd
2-ethylhexan-1-ol Fatty alcohols 12.57 926,002 504,742 387,674 353,196 nd
N,N-dimethyl-1-phenylmethanamine Phenylmethylamines 12.89 1,372,753 718,613 1,524,860 6,240,599 nd
octan-1-ol Fatty alcohols 13.72   166,013    R 2
nonanal Carbonyl compounds 14.65 443,257 1,896,061 1,554,323 1,845,908 nd
1,2-dimethoxybenzene Methoxybenzenes 15.85 616,333    545,145 D 2
nonan-1-ol Fatty alcohols 16.61   193,102 117,130   nd
167E 3,5-I 17.43     305,129 t B* 1
decanal Carbonyl compounds 17.63 278,696 700,648 1,604,149 1,134,669 D 2
1,2-benzothiazole Benzothiazoles 18.25 144,183 74,430 800,979 136,283 nd
Unknown1   18.55     75,485
3,5-dimethyl-2-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine Pyrazines 18.61 4,599,780 276,403 322,721   DP 1
Unknown2   18.92 8,629,722    
Unknown3   19.18 31,992,502   667,980  
Unknown4   19.86 1,087,042    
1,2,2-triethylpyrrolidine N-alkylpyrrolidines 20.01    229,410   R 1
Unknown5   20.49   213,285   
207I 1,4-Q 20.59 511,736     B* 1
(3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) 2-methylpropanoate Carboxylic acid derivatives 22.79 463,512 1,601,188 1,534,685 1,913,640 nd
277E 5,6,8-I 23.09 659,662   515,089 149,741 B* 1
4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)butan-2-one Sesquiterpenoids 24.77 499,394 178,155 394,571 620,594 nd
(E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)but-3-en-2-one Sesquiterpenoids 26.18 298,444 231,400 597,650 1,081,089 nd
223AB (5E,9Z) 3,5-I 27.08 3,807,696    8,685,370 t B* 1
223AB (5E,9E) 3,5-I 27.49 264,366    618,971 t B* 1
223AB (5Z,9Z) 3,5-I 27.96 650,603    1,623,468 t B* 1
Unknown6   28.52   536,527   556,661
tetradecanal Fatty aldehydes 29.76   460,880    R 2
Unknown7   30.24 443,555 387,061 427,026 783,730
N-butyl-N-(2-oxochromen-3-yl)acetamide Coumarins and derivatives 31.02 864,020    2,087,588 nd
3-methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)but-3-en-2-one Sesquiterpenoids 31.34 403,695 212,268 398,450 789,925 nd
  1. Abbreviations: 3,5-I 3,5-Disubstituted indolizidines, 1,4-Q 1,4-disubstituted quinolizidines, 5,6,8-I 5,6,8-Trisubstituted indolizidines, BF Behavioral function, nd not determined, t low toxicity, B* Presumed bitter, D Defence substance, DP Defence pheromone, R Repellent, 1 Defensive/antipredator properties measured in the class/subclass/alkaloid family, not with specific chemical structure, 2 Behavioral test with organisms other than amphibians