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Table 3 Character matrix on the differences in the described development mode of elements (Fig. 13a). Character 1: origin of the fenestra basicranialis posterior: 0 = absent; 1 = primary origin; 2 = secondary origin;? = no information. Character 2: formation of trabecula communis: 0 = by fusion with intertrabecula; 1 = by fusion of trabeculae;? = no information. Character 3: chondrification centres of otic capsule: 0 = centre in cochlear portion; 1 = centre in cochlear and canalicular portion; 2 = centre in canalicular portion;? = no information. Character 4: cartilaginous metotic cartilage: 0 = not independent, but unclear to which part of the chondrocranium they are fused; 1 = independent; 2 = fused to basal plate; 3 = fused to otic capsule;? = no information. Character 5: development of anterior orbital cartilage: 0 = independent origin; 1 = from trabeculae; 2 = from trabecula communis; 3 = in continuity with interorbital septum;? = no information. Character 6: base of interorbital septum: 0 = intertrabecula; 1 = trabecula communis;? = no information. Character 7: base of prenasal process: 0 = nasal septum; 1 = trabecula communis;? = no information. Character 8: base of nasal septum: 0 = intertrabecula; 1 = trabecula communis;? = no information

From: Evolution and development of the bird chondrocranium

Characters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Species
Apteryx australis 1 ? ? 0 1 ? 0 ?
Dromaius novaehollandiae 0 ? ? ? ? 1 ? ?
Rhea americana ? ? ? 0 ? ? ? ?
Struthio sp. ? 1 2 3 1 1 0 ?
Coturnix japonica ? 0 1 ? ? 0 0 0
Meleagris gallopavo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Gallus gallus 1/2 1 0 1 2 1 1 1
Anas platyrhynchos 1 1 1 1 1 ? 0 ?
Caprimuglus pectoralis ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Columba livia 2 ? 1 ? ? ? ? ?
Streptopelia senegalensis 2 ? 1 ? 0 ? ? ?
Opisthocomus hoazin 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Spheniscus demersus 0 1 1 3 2 1 1 ?
Larus sp. ? ? ? ? 0 ? ? ?
Phalacrocorax carbo 1 1 ? 2 2 1 1 ?
Falco tinnunculus 2 0 ? 2 ? 0 ? 0
Melopsittacus undulatus 0 1 2 2 3 1 1 1
Euplectes orix 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1
Passer sp. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Sturnus sp. ? ? 1 ? ? ? ? ?
Hirundo rustica ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?