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Table 2 Sequence of chondrification in the chondrocranium of birds and non-avian sauropsids. Chondrocranial characters ordered by anatomical regions. For the sequential stages as originally reported see Table S4, Additional file 4 and Table S5, Additional file 5

From: Evolution and development of the bird chondrocranium

Species Struthio sp. [25, 45, 56, 65] Gallus gallus [21, 58, 60, 64, 69, 73, 74] Meleagris gallopavo [33, 37] Coturnix japonica [34, 75] Anas platyrhynchos [46, 64] Spheniscus demersus [47] Phalacrocorax carbo [61] Falco tinnunculus [48] Melopsittacus undulatus [49, 51] Euplectes orix [50] Melanosuchus niger [72] Caretta caretta [76] Ptyodactylus hasselquistii [77, 78] Lacerta agilis [15] Chalcides ocellatus [79, 80]
Characters
acrochordal cartilage 1 1 ? 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3
parachordal cartilage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1
fenestra basicranialis posterior ? 4 ? ? 3 1 3 2 ? 3 3 2 3
trabeculae 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
trabecula communis 3 2 2 3 5 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2
otic capsule 4 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 4 1 2 3 2
fenestra ovalis 6 3 ? 6 7 6 4 3 6 4 ? ? 4 7 6
metotic cartilage 6 4 ? 3 6 2 3 3 4 3 ?
nasal septum 3 3 3 3 5 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 3
fenestration of nasal septum 5 ? 5 8 6 ? 5 8 6 ? 8 10 6
prenasal process 3 3 3 6 5 2 2 3 4 4 ?
planum antorbitale 4 4 ? 5 7 4 4 2 5 3 4 ? 5 5 5
parietotectal cartilage 4 4 ? 4 6 5 4 3 3 4 4 3 5 7 4
nasal capsule 7 7 ? 7 9 6 6 6 7 6 4 ? 6 9 5
cupola anterior 7 7 ? 7 9 7 6 6 7 6 ? 6 10 5
concha nasalis 4 4 ? 5 7 5 ? ? 4 ? 7 ? 5
maxilloturbinal 5 5 ? 5 8 6 6 5 7 6 ? ? ? ? ?
atrioturbinal 7 6 ? 5 9 7 6 6 8 6 ? ? ? ? ?
interorbital septum 4 2 3 4 6 2 3 2 5 3 4 2 4 2 3
fenestration of interorbital septum 7 3 7 8 6 6 4 7 ? ? 8 6
planum supraseptale 5 7 ? ? 7 5 5 6 7 ? 4 3 4 2 3
pila antotica 2 2 ? 1 4 2 2 ? 2 2 4 4 4 2 5
tectum synoticum 7 5 4 7 7 7 4 5 7 4 5 5 7 6 5