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Table 1 Combinations of differences between parity modes in variables describing variability (second column) and average temperature (third column) and their support for a given hypothesis explaining the evolution of viviparity (Fig. 1). Abbreviations: ↑vivi: viviparous > oviparous, ↓vivi: viviparous < oviparous, ‘-‘: no differences, CCH: cold-climate hypothesis, MMH: maternal manipulation hypothesis, SMH: selfish mother hypothesis, letters and numbers in brackets correspond to the predictions listed in Fig. 1 (e.g. MMP1: Manternal Manipulation Prediction 1)

From: Climatic niche differences among Zootoca vivipara clades with different parity modes: implications for the evolution and maintenance of viviparity

combination Nr. climatic differences among parity modes supported hypothesesa
  variables describing variability variables describing average temperature  
1 none
2 ↓vivi CCH (CCP1), MMH (MMP1)
3 ↑vivi MMH (MMP2), SMH (SMP2)
4 ↑vivi MMH (MMP3)
5 ↑vivi ↓vivi MMH (MMP1,3)
6 ↑vivi ↑vivi MMH (MMP2,3), SMH (SMP2)b
7 ↓vivi SMH (SMP1)
8 ↓vivi ↓vivi SMH (SMP1)c
9 ↓vivi ↑vivi SMH (SMP1,2)
  1. a if a given hypothesis makes predictions on average temperature, but not on variability (e.g. the CCH), then combinations including effects on averages and variances (e.g., combinations 5, 6, 8, 9) do not support this hypothesis, given that the hypothesis cannot explain why the differences in variances exist
  2. b if the negative effect of higher variability is smaller than the positive effect of increased temperature
  3. c if the negative effect of lower temperature is smaller than the positive effect of lower variability