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Fig. 4 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 4

From: Neuroendocrine patterns underlying seasonal song and year-round territoriality in male black redstarts

Fig. 4

Seasonal analysis of hypothalamic brain areas. Example of slides (a) showing mRNA expression of aromatase (I), androgen receptor (II), and estrogen receptor α (III). NCM: caudo medial nidopallium, mMAN: medial nucleus magnocellularis of the anterior forebrain, POA: preoptic area, PMH: medial posterior nucleus of the hipothalamus, PLH: lateral posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus. Yellow and blue dots indicate mean estimates ± 95% CI, grey dots indicate individual data points. Aromatase (IV) and androgen receptor (V) mRNA expression were higher during breeding compared to the nonbreeding periods (p = 0.04, p = 0.01). Estrogen receptor (VI) mRNA expression in the preoptic area and the hypothalamus did not differ across seasons (breeding: N = 5, molt: N = 5, nonbreeding: N = 6)

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