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Table 2 The effect of study group (LL – low nest density control group, LH – low-high nest density fostered group, HL – high-low nest density fostered group, HH – high nest density control group) and nestling age on PHA response, as assessed with general linear mixed model (restricted maximum likelihood). The breeding colony and nest identities were used as random factors. Significant variables are shown in bold. The marginal and conditional R2 for the model are 0.041 and 0.322 respectively

From: Density-dependence of nestling immune function and physiological condition in semi-precocial colonial bird: a cross-fostering experiment

Explanatory variable β coefficient ± standard error df t P
Intercept 0.64 ± 0.07 12.1 9.93 < 0.0001
Study group (HL vs. HH) 0.07 ± 0.04 216.6 1.95 0.052
Study group (LH vs. HH) 0.09 ± 0.04 197.8 2.66 0.01
Study group (LL vs. HH) 0.07 ± 0.04 202.1 2.06 0.04
Study group (HL vs. LH) −0.02 ± 0.04 203.0 −0.62 0.54
Study group (HL vs. LL) −0.002 ± 0.04 207.9 − 0.07 0.99
Study group (LH vs. LL) 0.02 ± 0.03 191.0 0.56 0.58
Age −0.01 ± 0.003 297.8 −2.13 0.03