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Table 3 Results for all full model and ecological covariate meta-analyses

From: Cranial morphology of captive mammals: a meta-analysis

   Directionality Magnitude
   r SE Z LB UB r SE Z LB UB
Skull Length
=
Full Model   0.01 0.19 0.07 −0.37 0.39 0.35 0.06 6.07*** 0.24 0.46
Trophic Level Carnivores 0.12 0.30 0.38 −0.48 0.71 0.38 0.08 5.00*** 0.12 0.67
Omnivores 0.19 0.41 0.47 − 0.61 0.99 0.22 0.13 1.70 −0.33 0.48
Herbivores −0.17 0.34 −0.50 − 0.83 0.49 0.39 0.14 2.83** 0.12 0.67
  Dietary Breadth 1 0.07 0.34 0.19 −0.61 0.74 0.36 0.08 4.44*** 0.20 0.53
  2–3 −0.05 0.30 −0.16 − 0.64 0.54 0.41 0.11 3.83*** 0.20 0.62
   4+ 0.28 0.35 0.81 −0.40 0.96 0.19 0.14 1.34 −0.08 0.45
  Home Range Small −0.05 0.29 −0.18 −0.63 0.52 0.39 0.08 4.72*** 0.23 0.56
  Medium 0.25 0.34 0.73 −0.42 0.91 0.14 0.16 0.86 −0.18 0.46
   Large 0.24 0.36 0.66 −0.47 0.94 0.35 0.11 3.31*** 0.14 0.55
Skull Width
=
Full Model   −0.19 0.19 −0.98 − 0.57 0.19 0.45 0.15 2.91** 0.15 0.75
Trophic Level Carnivores −0.20 0.34 0.59 −0.87 0.47 0.71 0.24 2.99** 0.25 1.18
Omnivores −0.02 0.41 −0.05 − 0.82 0.78 0.10 0.29 0.35 −0.47 0.67
  Herbivores −0.28 0.35 −0.82 −0.96 0.40 0.42 0.24 1.74 −0.05 0.90
  Dietary Breadth 1 −0.34 0.26 −1.28 −0.86 0.18 0.69 0.19 3.73*** 0.33 1.06
  2–3 −0.18 0.32 −0.57 − 0.81 0.45 0.33 0.24 1.40 −0.13 0.80
   4+ 0.18 −0.32 − 0.55 −0.45 0.80 −0.01 0.23 −0.04 − 0.48 0.46
  Home Range Small −0.29 0.24 −1.19 −0.76 0.19 0.49 0.20 2.44* 0.10 0.88
  Medium 0.01 0.29 0.03 −0.56 0.58 0.20 0.26 0.78 −0.31 0.71
   Large −0.13 0.31 −0.41 −0.74 0.48 0.49 0.26 1.87 −0.02 1.00
Skull L:W
=
Full Model   0.07 0.16 0.45 −0.25 0.39 0.36 0.13 2.85** 0.11 0.60
Trophic Level Carnivores 0.18 0.25 0.72 −0.30 0.66 0.39 0.18 2.16* 0.04 0.75
Omnivores −0.01 0.56 −0.02 −1.10 1.08 0.03 0.42 0.07 −0.80 0.86
  Herbivores 0.05 0.28 −0.17 −0.60 0.50 0.38 0.21 1.78 −0.04 0.80
Dietary Breadth 1 0.18 0.21 0.86 −0.23 0.59 0.36 0.17 2.14* 0.03 0.70
2–3 −0.13 0.27 −0.47 − 0.67 0.41 0.33 0.23 1.47 −0.12 0.78
   4+ −0.01 0.30 −0.02 −0.59 0.58 0.34 0.25 1.34 −0.16 0.84
  Home Range Small 0.13 0.22 0.62 −0.29 0.56 0.55 0.15 3.72*** 0.26 0.84
  Medium 0.14 0.26 0.54 −0.37 0.66 0.29 0.22 1.34 −0.13 0.72
   Large −0.04 0.25 −0.16 −0.57 0.48 0.14 0.19 0.77 −0.22 0.51
  1. Cranial morphological differences between captive and wild mammals assessing directionality and magnitude on skull length, skull width, and skull length-to-width (L:W). Results report the mean value from 2000 randomly selected phylogenic trees from Upham et al. [105] where r represents the summary effect of the model, SE represents the standard error, Z represents the Z-Statistic of the model, and LB and UB represent the lower and upper bounds, respectively, of the confidence interval. Ecological covariates include trophic level, dietary breadth, and home range sizes. Significant results are indicated in bold and asterisks indicate p-value range: 0.01–0.05*, 0.001–0.01**, 0–0.001***