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Table 4 Impacts of high pCO2 on gene expression and acid-base homeostasis in marine invertebrate taxa. ‘Acid-base homeostasis genes’ is a broad term that encompasses any gene involved in proton (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3) transport as defined independently in each study. Arrows denote the direction of the response. In instances with both arrows, this reflects either overall differential expression (genes being both up and down regulated), or conflicting results across studies. Dashes indicate a non-significant response. It should be noted that physiological and gene expression measurements for a particular species may be confined to separate independent studies

From: Ocean acidification promotes broad transcriptomic responses in marine metazoans: a literature survey

Acid-Base Homeostasis
PhylumSpeciesAcid-base homeostasis genes in response to high pCO2External pCO2 / response in high pCO2HCO3 levels / response in high pCO2Range of pCO2 tested (μatm)Refs
ArthropodaHyas araneus↑ or ↓Y / ↑Y / ↑420–3300[71]
Carcinus maenasY / -Y / -40–440 Pa[68, 69]
ChordataAcanthochromis polyacanthusY / ↑Y / ↑414–1900[88, 89, 132]
Gadus morhua↑ or ↓NY / ↑550–2200[91, 92, 133]
Oryzias latipesNN393–7081[93]
Pagothenia borchgrevinkiNN427–1053[94]
Trematomus bernacchiiNN430–1000[97]
EchinodermataStrongylocentrotus purpuratus↓ or -Y / ↓ or -N380–9556[81, 85, 110, 134]
Amphiura filiformisY / ↓ (pH)Y / ↑492–6399[72]