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Table 3 Impacts of high pCO2 on gene expression and calcification in marine invertebrate taxa. ‘Calcification genes’ is a broad term that encompasses any calcification or biomineralization processes as defined independently in each study, which includes acid-base regulation in some studies and not in others. Arrows denote the direction of the response. In instances with both arrows, this reflects either overall differential expression (genes being both up and down regulated), or conflicting results across studies or life-history stages. Dashes indicate a non-significant response. In studies where pCO2 was not calculated (or only calculated in some studies), pH values are given. It should be noted that calcification and gene expression measurements for a particular species may be confined to separate independent studies

From: Ocean acidification promotes broad transcriptomic responses in marine metazoans: a literature survey

Calcification
PhylumSpeciesCalcification genes in response to high pCO2Calcification measured / response in high pCO2MethodRange of pCO2 tested (μatm)Refs
CnidariaAcropora gemmiferaY / ↓SEM389–1214[28]
Acropora millepora↑ or ↓Y / ↓Change in weight325–1638[21,22,23,24,25,26]
Balanophyllia elegans↑ or -N785–2367[30]
Desmophyllum dianthusY / -Change in weight460–997[31]
Pocillopora damicornis↑ or -Y / -Total alkalinity anomaly417–3879[32, 33, 99, 100]
Siderastrea sidereaY / ↑ or ↓Change in weight280–2800[34, 118]
Stylophora pistillata↑ or ↓Y / ↑ or ↓Sr incorporation, SEMpH:7.20–8.1[35, 36]
MolluscaCrassostrea gigas↓ or -Y / ↓ or –Cross polarized light microscopy/shell weight449–1515[46, 48]
Crepidula fornicataY / ↓Shell length/growth rate504–1480[64]
Heliconoides inflataY / ↓45Ca uptake382–720[60]
Limacina helicina↑ or ↓NpH: 6.5–8.23[61]
Limacina helicina antarctica↑ or ↓N318–902[62]
Limacina retroversaY / ↑ or –Calcein staining/image analysis464–1177[63]
Mytilus californianusY / ↓Larval shell length345–1411[42]
Mytilus edulisY / ↓Shell morphology385–4000[45, 102, 103]
Pinctada fucata↑ or ↓Y / ↓Shell length, weight, hardness, calcium content, SEM, net calcification rate,pH:7.4–8.1[50,51,52, 54]
Saccostrea glomerata↑ or ↓Y / ↓Shell length380–1329[55,56,57, 105]
EchinodermataLytechinus pictusY / ↓Skeletal morphology280–970[74]
Paracentrotus lividusY / ↓Skeletal morphology/45Ca uptake397–6590[76]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensisY / ↓Body size418–1145[77]
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus↑ or ↓Y / ↓Skeletal morphology /body size/ Calcein pulse-chase experiments380–9556[81, 82, 85, 110, 119, 120]