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Table 2 Impacts of high pCO2 on gene expression and oxygen consumption in marine invertebrate taxa. ‘Metabolic genes’ is a broad term that encompasses any metabolic processes as defined independently in each study. Arrows denote the direction of the response. In instances with both arrows, this reflects either overall differential expression (genes being both up and down regulated), or conflicting results across studies or life-history stages. Dashes indicate a non-significant response. It should be noted that oxygen consumption and gene expression measurements for a particular species may be confined to separate independent studies. Exposure duration and range of pCO2 tested are inclusive to all studies on noted species. In studies where pCO2 was not calculated (or only calculated in some studies), pH values are given. Hpf = hour post fertilization, dpf = days post fertilization, d = days, h = hour, wk = weeks, mo = months, field = organisms sampled from variable habitats in the field, generation = exposure carried out across multiple generations

From: Ocean acidification promotes broad transcriptomic responses in marine metazoans: a literature survey

Metabolism

Phylum

Species

Metabolic genes in response to high pCO2

Oxygen consumption measured / response in high pCO2

Exposure duration

Range of pCO2 tested (μatm)

References

Cnidaria

Acropora aspera

↑ or ↓

N

14 d

142–827

[27]

Acropora millepora

↓ or –

N

1 h - Field

325–1638

[21,22,23,24,25,26]

Balanophyllia elegans

↑ or ↓

Y / - or ↓

29 d

785–2367

[30]

Desmophyllum dianthus

Y / ↑

8 mo

460–997

[31]

Pocillopora damicornis

↑ or -

Y / ↓

24 h − 1.5 mo

417–3879

[32, 33, 99, 100]

Siderastrea siderea

N

95 d

280–2800

[34]

Mollusca

Clio pyramidata

↓ or -

Y/ -

10 h

280–800

[58]

Crassostrea gigas

↓ or -

Y/ -

18hpf-3mo

449–1515

[46, 48]

Crassostrea virginica

↑ or ↓

N

Field

pH:7.2–8.0

[49]

Crepidula fornicata

N

12 d

504–1480

[64]

Heliconoides inflata

Y/ -

3 d

382–720

[60]

Limacina helicina antarctica

Y/ ↑

1–21 d

215–961

[62, 101]

Limacina retroversa

↑ or ↓

Y/ ↑

1–21 d

464–1177

[63]

Mytilus californianus

N

63 hpf

345–1411

[42]

Mytilus edulis

Y / ↑

2d-2 mo

385–4000

[45, 102, 103]

Pinctada fucata

Y / -

0.5 h-2 mo

pH:7.4–8.1

[50, 51, 53, 104]

Saccostrea glomerata

↑ or ↓

Y / ↑

1 wk. −5 wks

380–1329

[55,56,57, 105]

Sinonovacula constricta

Y / ↓

1 wk

549–3064

[41]

Annelida

Platynereis spp.

↑ or –

Y / ↑

5 d – 7 d

478–6534

[37, 106]

Arthropoda

Calanus glacialis

Y / -

35–38 d

320–1700

[66, 107]

Hyas araneus

↑ or ↓

Y / - or ↓

9d – 10wks

420–3300

[70, 71]

Pseudocalanus acuspes

↑ or ↓

Y / ↑

generations

400–1550

[67, 108]

Echinodermata

Amphiura filiformis

Y / ↓

4 wks

492–6399

[72]

Lytechinus pictus

N

142 hpf

280–970

[74]

Paracentrotus lividus

N

3 d

397–6590

[76]

Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

N

5.4 dpf – 16 mo

400–1200

[77, 109]

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

↑ or ↓

Y/ ↑, − or ↓

40 hpf – 21 dpf

380–9556

[74, 81, 82, 84, 85, 110]