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Table 2 Impacts of high pCO2 on gene expression and oxygen consumption in marine invertebrate taxa. ‘Metabolic genes’ is a broad term that encompasses any metabolic processes as defined independently in each study. Arrows denote the direction of the response. In instances with both arrows, this reflects either overall differential expression (genes being both up and down regulated), or conflicting results across studies or life-history stages. Dashes indicate a non-significant response. It should be noted that oxygen consumption and gene expression measurements for a particular species may be confined to separate independent studies. Exposure duration and range of pCO2 tested are inclusive to all studies on noted species. In studies where pCO2 was not calculated (or only calculated in some studies), pH values are given. Hpf = hour post fertilization, dpf = days post fertilization, d = days, h = hour, wk = weeks, mo = months, field = organisms sampled from variable habitats in the field, generation = exposure carried out across multiple generations

From: Ocean acidification promotes broad transcriptomic responses in marine metazoans: a literature survey

PhylumSpeciesMetabolic genes in response to high pCO2Oxygen consumption measured / response in high pCO2Exposure durationRange of pCO2 tested (μatm)References
CnidariaAcropora aspera↑ or ↓N14 d142–827[27]
Acropora millepora↓ or –N1 h - Field325–1638[21,22,23,24,25,26]
Balanophyllia elegans↑ or ↓Y / - or ↓29 d785–2367[30]
Desmophyllum dianthusY / ↑8 mo460–997[31]
Pocillopora damicornis↑ or -Y / ↓24 h − 1.5 mo417–3879[32, 33, 99, 100]
Siderastrea sidereaN95 d280–2800[34]
MolluscaClio pyramidata↓ or -Y/ -10 h280–800[58]
Crassostrea gigas↓ or -Y/ -18hpf-3mo449–1515[46, 48]
Crassostrea virginica↑ or ↓NFieldpH:7.2–8.0[49]
Crepidula fornicataN12 d504–1480[64]
Heliconoides inflataY/ -3 d382–720[60]
Limacina helicina antarcticaY/ ↑1–21 d215–961[62, 101]
Limacina retroversa↑ or ↓Y/ ↑1–21 d464–1177[63]
Mytilus californianusN63 hpf345–1411[42]
Mytilus edulisY / ↑2d-2 mo385–4000[45, 102, 103]
Pinctada fucataY / -0.5 h-2 mopH:7.4–8.1[50, 51, 53, 104]
Saccostrea glomerata↑ or ↓Y / ↑1 wk. −5 wks380–1329[55,56,57, 105]
Sinonovacula constrictaY / ↓1 wk549–3064[41]
AnnelidaPlatynereis spp.↑ or –Y / ↑5 d – 7 d478–6534[37, 106]
ArthropodaCalanus glacialisY / -35–38 d320–1700[66, 107]
Hyas araneus↑ or ↓Y / - or ↓9d – 10wks420–3300[70, 71]
Pseudocalanus acuspes↑ or ↓Y / ↑generations400–1550[67, 108]
EchinodermataAmphiura filiformisY / ↓4 wks492–6399[72]
Lytechinus pictusN142 hpf280–970[74]
Paracentrotus lividusN3 d397–6590[76]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensisN5.4 dpf – 16 mo400–1200[77, 109]
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus↑ or ↓Y/ ↑, − or ↓40 hpf – 21 dpf380–9556[74, 81, 82, 84, 85, 110]