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Table 3 Values (mean ± SD) of acoustic variables of the three types of male impala snorts

From: Rutting vocal display in male impala (Aepyceros melampus) and overlap with alarm context

Snort variable All snorts
n = 181
Usual snorts
n = 77
Roar-snorts
n = 66
Alarm snorts
n = 38
GLM snort type effect GLM recording site effect
Dur (s) 0.39 ± 0.15 0.42 ± 0.15 a 0.43 ± 0.14 a 0.28 ± 0.09 b F2,172 = 15.5, p < 0.001 F6,172 = 1.58, p = 0.15
fpeak (Hz) 1070 ± 566 1066 ± 598 997 ± 547 1207 ± 517 F2,172 = 1.64, p = 0.18 F6,172 = 2.55, p = 0.02
q25 (Hz) 1103 ± 277 1113 ± 275 1050 ± 258 1177 ± 300 F2,172 = 2.40, p = 0.10 F6,172 = 2.88, p = 0.01
q50 (Hz) 1995 ± 487 2103 ± 504 1935 ± 428 1879 ± 513 F2,172 = 2.63, p = 0.08 F6,172 = 1.15, p = 0.34
q75 (Hz) 3363 ± 734 3462 ± 581 a 3532 ± 763 a 2870 ± 766 b F2,172 = 11.0, p < 0.001 F6,172 = 2.31, p = 0.04
Int (s) a 3.10 ± 7.06 0.56 ± 0.32 a 0.42 ± 0.23 a 13.13 ± 10.79 b F2,146 = 80.7, p < 0.001 F6,146 = 1.56, p = 0.16
  1. Designations: Dur call duration, fpeak the peak frequency with maximum amplitude, q25, q50, q75 the lower q25, medium q50, and upper q75 quartiles, covering 25, 50 and 75% of the energy of the call spectrum, Int Interval to the next call within bout or series, GLM GLM results, significant differences are given in bold. The same superscripts indicate that the values did not differ significantly (Tukey HSD test)
  2. an = 58 for the usual snorts, n = 65 for the roar-snorts, n = 32 for the alarm snorts