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Table 2 Values (mean ± SD) of the acoustic variables of the three types of male impala rutting roars

From: Rutting vocal display in male impala (Aepyceros melampus) and overlap with alarm context

Roar variable All roars
n = 201
Continuous roars
n = 35
Interrupted roars
n = 92
Pant-roars
n = 74
GLM roar type effect GLM recording site effect
Dur (s) 2.89 ± 1.66 1.65 ± 0.47 a 3.04 ± 1.79 b 3.28 ± 1.59 b F2,192 = 14.2, p < 0.001 F6,192 = 10.4, p < 0.001
f0mean (Hz) 50.5 ± 4.8 49.7 ± 3.4 50.1 ± 3.6 51.4 ± 6.3 F2,192 = 0.43, p = 0.65 F6,192 = 5.21, p < 0.001
F1 (Hz) 349 ± 28 345 ± 31 353 ± 27 347 ± 27 F2,192 = 0.99, p = 0.38 F6,192 = 3.19, p = 0.005
F2 (Hz) 745 ± 53 746 ± 59 743 ± 54 747 ± 49 F2,192 = 0.39, p = 0.68 F6,192 = 3.91, p = 0.001
F3 (Hz) 1270 ± 66 1245 ± 61 a 1284 ± 66 b 1264 ± 66 a, b F2,192 = 3.18, p = 0.04 F6,192 = 9.20, p < 0.001
F4 (Hz) 1741 ± 134 1738 ± 154 1747 ± 136 1734 ± 121 F2,192 = 0.59, p = 0.56 F6,192 = 10.5, p < 0.001
dF (Hz) 464 ± 44 464 ± 51 464 ± 45 462 ± 38 F2,192 = 0.32, p = 0.73 F2,198 = 8.46, p < 0.001
vtl (mm) 381 ± 39 382 ± 45 381 ± 41 381 ± 33 F2,192 = 0.56, p = 0.57 F6,192 = 7.82, p < 0.001
n exhalation-inhalation cycles 4.67 ± 3.50 1.00 ± 0.00 a 3.63 ± 1.69 b 7.69 ± 3.58 c F2,192 = 109.1, p < 0.001 F6,192 = 11.6, p < 0.001
one exhalatory phase duration (s) 0.64 ± 0.46 1.40 ± 0.43 a 0.63 ± 0.27 b 0.30 ± 0.10 c F2,192 = 246.2, p < 0.001 F6,192 = 8.32, p < 0.001
one inhalatory phase duration (s) a 0.21 ± 0.11 0.31 ± 0.13 a 0.24 ± 0.11 b 0.15 ± 0.03 c F2,179 = 36.5, p < 0.001 F6,179 = 6.93, p < 0.001
time spent exhaling (%) 75.6 ± 10.8 87.3 ± 11.4 a 76.8 ± 8.1 b 68.6 ± 7.8 c F2,192 = 52.5, p < 0.001 F6,192 = 7.15, p < 0.001
time spent inhaling (%) 24.4 ± 10.8 12.7 ± 11.4 a 23.2 ± 8.1 b 31.4 ± 7.8 c F2,192 = 52.5, p < 0.001 F2,198 = 7.15, p < 0.001
  1. Designations: Dur call duration, f0mean the mean fundamental frequency, F1, F2, F3, F4 the four first formants, dF the formant dispersion, vtl the vocal tract length calculated on the basis of formant dispersion for the maximally retracted larynx position during roar emission, n exhalation-inhalation cycles = number of exhalation-inhalation cycles, GLM GLM results, significant differences are given in bold. The same superscripts indicate that the values did not differ significantly (Tukey HSD test)
  2. an = 22 for the continuous roars