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Table 1 Occurrence of the five call types in male impala bouts of rutting calls

From: Rutting vocal display in male impala (Aepyceros melampus) and overlap with alarm context

Types of rutting calls n calls n first calls in bouts n last calls in bouts n bouts with this call type n calls/bout mean ± SD (min-max)
Continuous roar 188 (6.9%) 2 (1.0%) 3 (1.5%) 81 (40.3%) 2.3 ± 2.1 (1–11)
Interrupted roar 266 (9.8%) 5 (2.5%) 3 (1.5%) 134 (66.7%) 2.0 ± 1.3 (1–12)
Pant-roar 270 (10.0%) 21 (10.4%) 4 (2.0%) 104 (51.7%) 2.6 ± 1.8 (1–11)
Usual snort 1822 (67.3%) 173 (86.1%) 186 (92.5%) 69 (34.3%) 9.1 ± 5.0 (2–25)
Roar-snort 163 (6.0%) 0 5 (2.5%) 201 (100%) 2.4 ± 0.2 (1–9)
All roars 724 (26.7%) 28 (13.9%) 10 (5.0%) 201 (100%) 3.6 ± 2.9 (1–21)
All snorts 1985 (73.3%) 173 (86.1%) 191 (95.0%) 201 (100%) 9.9 ± 5.1 (2–27)
Total 2709 201 201 201 13.5 ± 6.5 (4–38)