Skip to main content


Fig. 4 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 4

From: Metabolic reprogramming involving glycolysis in the hibernating brown bear skeletal muscle

Fig. 4

Changes related to carbohydrate metabolism in winter bears. Maximum enzymatic activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in vastus lateralis muscle samples from brown bears in summer (white bars) and winter (black bars) at 33 °C and 37 °C (panel A; N = 7 per season). Gene expression levels of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 or SLC16A1), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4 or SLC16A3), and aquaporin 7 (AQP7) were measured using RT-qPCR in bear vastus lateralis muscles (panel B and C; N = 8 per season). Data are expressed as means ± sem. Statistical significance is shown for paired student t-tests (** P < 0.01) and post-hoc Tukey tests that followed type III ANOVA (values that do not share the same superscript letter are significantly different; P < 0.05). Circulating levels of glycerol were assessed enzymatically in bear plasma using a commercial kit (panel C; N = 25 per season) and presented as individual values (circles, those in red correspond to plasma samples where glycerol was also measured using NMR-based analysis with values being shown in Table 1) along with the mean ± sem (in blue) and median (in green) values

Back to article page