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Table 1 Summary of relationships between chick-rearing physiology, workload, current productivity, future fecundity and survival

From: Physiological predictors of reproductive performance in the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

Life-history stage Outcome variable Absolute physiological trait value (chick-rearing) Change in physiological trait value (incubation-chick rearing)
Workload Nest visit rate Cort ↑ (F1,9 = 7841, p < 0.001,
n = 43)
Mass ↓ (F1,12.4 = 6.5, p = 0.03,
n = 51)
Brood size at day 6
Current productivity BSF1 dROMs ↓ (z = − 1.95, p = 0.047,
n = 53)a
Mean fledging mass, brood 1 NEFA ↓ (F1,46.1 = 6.6, p = 0.01,
n = 50)
Trig ↓ (F 1,45.1 = 5.9, p = 0.02,
n = 48)
Year 1 total offspring dROMs ↓ (z = − 2.17, p = 0.03,
n = 52)a
Trig ↑ (z = 2.1, p = 0.04, n = 52)a
Future fecundity Probability initiating 2nd brood
BSF2 OXY ↑ (z = 2.1, p = 0.04,
n = 16)a
Mean fledging mass, brood 2
BSF1 in year 2
Survival Local return rate, year 2
Cumulative productivity No. fledglings over 2 years Trig ↑ (z = 2.5, p = 0.01, n = 12)a
  1. Direction of associations is indicated by arrows: up arrow for positive associations and down arrows for negative ones
  2. a Not significant (p > 0.05) when n = 3 females with BSF = 0 are excluded