Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 1

From: Evolution of the facial musculature in basal ray-finned fishes

Fig. 1

Cranial musculoskeletal system of Polypterus senegalus, USNM 229760; left lateral view; first nasal (= os terminale), prespiracular ossicles, gular plate, postorbital (= postinfraorbital), posterior portion of compound maxilla, and cheek plate of preopercle removed. a Superficial musculature. b Deeper musculature; spiracular and postspiracular ossicles, labial cartilage, and dorsal portions of preopercle and pars ricto-malaris of adductor mandibulae additionally removed. Abbreviations: AM, adductor mandibulae; CHD, constrictor hyoideus dorsalis; CMD, constrictor mandibularis dorsalis. Color code: Salmon, muscle; sand, bone; blue, cartilage; white, tendon or ligament (regular connective tissue); dark grey, irregular connective tissue

Back to article page