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Table 1 Experimental findings on the stiffness of tree frogs’ toe pads

From: Tree frog attachment: mechanisms, challenges, and perspectives

Reference Species Effective elastic modulus E d i r i Remarks
   [kPa] [µm] [µm]  
[21] L. caerulea 33.5  ± 4.1 0.2 Ex vivo, AFM, Hertz theory
  R. prominanus 28.7  ± 10.5    
[22] L. caerulea 14000 1.6 Pyramidal AFM tip
[47] L. caerulea 4–25 200 Spherical MT, JKR-model
[69] L. caerulea 54  ± 7 0.5 0.4 Ex vivo, Spherical AFM, Hertz theory
   40.7  ± 3.2   13.3  
  1. di indentation depth, ri indenter radius, AFM atomic force microscopy, JKR Johnson-Kendall-Roberts, MT microtribometry