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Fig. 1 | Frontiers in Zoology

Fig. 1

From: Tree frog attachment: mechanisms, challenges, and perspectives

Fig. 1

Morphology of a digit and toe pad of a hylid tree frog. A Macroscopic structures. (A 1) Forelimbs of Litoria caerulea. (A 2) Schematic lateral view of tendons, phalangi (dark grey), and the intercalary element (light grey) in a digit of Scinax squalirostris. (A 3) Schematic depiction of the collagen fibres in a pad of Hyla dominicensis in dorsal view. B Superficial and internal pad structures in L. caerulea. (B 1) SEM image of the ventral epidermis. (B 2) Transverse section through the toe of a juvenile frog. C Epidermal cells on the ventral surface. (C 1) SEM image of polygonal cells in L. caerulea. (C 2) TEM image of a tangential cross-section through the apical part of two adjacent cells in Hyla cinerea. D Fine structures of the apical surface of an epidermal cell. (D 1) High power SEM image of nanopillars and their central depressions (‘dimples’) in L. caerulea. (D 2) TEM image of a cross-section through a row of nanopillars in H. cinerea (black arrows: EDM). BV blood vessels, CFG circumferential groove, CH channel between two epidermal cells/nanopillars, CO collagen fibres, D dermis, DE dorsal epidermis, DI dimple, EC epidermal cell, EDM electron dense material, ET extensor brevis profundus tendon, IE intercalary element, MG mucus gland, MP mucus pore, NP nanopillar, PC pad curvature, PH (terminal) phalanx, TO tonofilaments, TS tendo superficialis, VE ventral epidermis. The illustrations are not to scale. A 1, B 1, C 1 and D 1 modified after [25]; A 2 modified after [66]; A 3 modified after [44]; B 2 modified after [47]; C 2 and D 1 modified after [23]. All figures printed with permission

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